Artillery wheel

The artillery wheel was developed for use on gun carriages when it was found that the lateral forces involved in horse artillery manoeuvres caused normally constructed cart wheels to collapse. Rather than having its spokes mortised into a wooden nave (hub), it has them fitted together (mitred) then bolted into a metal nave. Its tyre is shrunk onto the rim in the usual way but it is also bolted on for security. A normal wagon wheel is dished so that in its lowest part, the spokes are perpendicular to the ground thus supporting the weight (with the axle not truly horizontal but angled downward toward the outside about 5 degrees). This is not done with artillery wheels.

 

 Artillery wheel

Motor vehicles

1927 Ford T with artillery wheels

When higher speeds and consequently higher lateral forces were attained with the introduction of motor vehicles, the artillery wheel was used in those too. By the 1920s, motor cars used wheels that looked at a glance like artillery wheels but which were of forged steel or welded from steel pressed sections. These too were usually called artillery wheels.

Joseph Sankey’s pressed steel artillery wheels

1908 aftermarket pressed and welded detachable steel wheel on a 1907 Austin

After training as an engineer, Joseph Sankey founded a major tea tray producer. A pioneer motorist, Sankey became personal friends with Herbert Austin, becoming a supplier of sheet steel components to the industry as a result.[1] By 1914, Joseph Sankey and Sons Ltd. supplied sheet steel bodies to Austin, Daimler, Humber, Rover, Star and Argyll.[1]

As a result of complaints from motor manufacturers about the wooden wheels on these early cars disintegrating upon touching any roadside kerb,[1] In 1908 Sankey with his works manager, Wingfield Burton, developed and patented the first pressed-steel and welded detachable motor car wheel.[2][1] Production started in 1908, with customers including Herbert Austin and, later, William Morris.[1] In addition to his original factory at Bilston a new plant was established near Wellington, Shropshire, which was devoted to wheel production.[1]

In 1920, GKN purchased steel company John Lysaght and their subsidiary, Joseph Sankey and Sons Ltd.[1] By that time the plant was supplying wheels to many UK manufacturers.[1]

Wire wheels

By the late 1920s the inadequacies of artillery wheels had brought about their sweeping replacement by the more expensive wire wheels.

References

  1. a b c d e f g h “Making the most of it Or – are you driving a GKN?”. Motor. 10 May 1969. pp. 58–60.
  2. Edgar Jones, A History of GKN: Volume 2: The Growth of a Business, 1918-1945, Macmillan, London, 1990 ISBN 9781349096664
Magnesium wheels Magnesium wheels are wheels manufactured from alloys which contain mostly magnesium. Magnesium wheels are produced either by casting (metalworking) (where molten metal is introduced into a mold, solidifying within the mold), or by forging (where a prefabricated bar is deformed mechanically). Magnesium has several key properties that make it an attractive base metal for wheels: lightness; a high damping capacity; and a high specific strength. Magnesium is the lightest metallic structural material available. It is 1.5 times less dense than aluminium, so magnesium wheels can be designed to be significantly lighter than aluminium alloy wheels, while exhibiting comparable strength. All competitive racing rims are now made of magnesium alloy. Cast magnesium wheels Taking into account their generally inferior quality compared to forged wheels, the main advantage of cast wheels is the relatively low cost of production. And although cast wheels are more affordable than forged wheels, cast...
Rim (wheel) The rim is the "outer edge of a wheel, holding the tire". It makes up the outer circular design of the wheel on which the inside edge of the tire is mounted on vehicles such as automobiles. For example, on a bicycle wheel the rim is a large hoop attached to the outer ends of the spokes of the wheel that holds the tire and tube. The term rim is also used non-technically to refer to the entire wheel, or even to a tire. In the 1st millennium BC, an iron rim was introduced around the wooden wheels of chariots. Cross section of a bicycle rim wooden bicycle rim with tubular tyre Characteristics Scratched rim on two-piece wheel. Black residue remaining from where the tire was seated on the "safety profile" rim. Diameter (effective): distance between the bead seats (for the tire), as measured in the plane of the rim and through the axis of the hub which is or will be attached, or which is integral with the rim. Width (e...
Alloy wheel In the automotive industry, alloy wheels are wheels that are made from an alloy of aluminium or magnesium. Alloys are mixtures of a metal and other elements. They generally provide greater strength over pure metals, which are usually much softer and more ductile. Alloys of aluminium or magnesium are typically lighter for the same strength, provide better heat conduction, and often produce improved cosmetic appearance over steel wheels. Although steel, the most common material used in wheel production, is an alloy of iron and carbon, the term "alloy wheel" is usually reserved for wheels made from nonferrous alloys. The earliest light-alloy wheels were made of magnesium alloys. Although they lost favor on common vehicles, they remained popular through the 1960s, albeit in very limited numbers. In the mid-to-late 1960s, aluminum-casting refinements allowed the manufacture of safer wheels that were not as brittle. Until this time, most aluminum wheels suffered from low ductility, usuall...
Tweel The Tweel (a portmanteau of tire and wheel) is an airless tire design concept developed by the French tire company Michelin. Its significant advantage over pneumatic tires is that the Tweel does not use a bladder full of compressed air, and therefore it cannot burst, leak pressure, or become flat. Instead, the Tweel assembly's inner hub connects to flexible polyurethane spokes which are used to support an outer rim and these engineered compliant components assume the shock-absorbing role provided by the compressed air in a traditional tire. The Tweel airless tire design Design The Tweel consists of a band of conventional tire rubber with molded tread, a shear beam just below the tread that creates a compliant contact patch, a series of energy-absorbing polyurethane spokes, and an integral inner rim structure. Both the shear beam and the polyurethane spokes can be designed to provide a calibrated directional stiffness in order that design engineers are able to control both how th...
Wire wheel Wire wheels, wire-spoked wheels, tension-spoked wheels, or "suspension" wheels are wheels whose rims connect to their hubs by wire spokes. Although these wires are generally stiffer than a typical wire rope, they function mechanically the same as tensioned flexible wires, keeping the rim true while supporting applied loads. The term suspension wheel should not be confused with vehicle suspension. Wire wheels are used on most bicycles and are still used on many motorcycles. They were invented by aeronautical engineer George Cayley in 1808. Although Cayley first proposed wire wheels, he did not apply for a patent. The first patent for wire wheels was issued to Theodore Jones of London, England on October 11, 1826. Eugène Meyer of Paris, France was the first person to receive, in 1869, a patent for wire wheels on bicycles. Bicycle wheels were not strong enough for cars until the development of tangentially spoked wheels. They rapidly became well established in the bicycle and motor ...