Cooling and Warming-Up System

The cooling system is of the combination closed-circuit type employing water as the coolant and relying for operation on forced circulation in the cylinder heads and on the convection of heat in the block. Jacket water is cooled in a special heat exchanger.

Cooling and warming-up system

Fig. Cooling and warming-up system, 5П2, 8П2, 10П2, П12, П21, П22 and 5П4 diesel engines:1 – exhaust manifold; 2 — valve; 3 — heater; 4 — heater pump; 5 — thermometer; 6 — thermostat; 7 — radiator; 8 — pump; 9 — engine; 10 — cooling of engine; 11 — warming up engine

In the diesel engines of the stationary modification, the circulation of jacket wafer goes on in the following way.

Pump в delivers water through a lube of manifold 1 into the lower jacket of the cylinder head for cooling the hottest parts such as the exhaust passages, combusting chambers and injectors. Hot water leaves the upper jacket and flows into radiator 7 through thermostat 6.… READ THE REST

Lubricating System

The lubricating system provides a supply of oil to all the rubbing surfaces of the diesel engine and serves to remove impurities from the engine.

Lubricating system, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines

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Fig. Lubricating system, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines: 1 – outflow of oil from sump; 2 — strainer; 3 — thermometer; 4 — oil pump; 5 — pressure gauge; 6 — primary oil filter; 7 — oil line lo speed governor; 8 — oil line to crankshaft and Secondary oil filter; 9 — oil passage to piston pin; 10 — sump; 11 — secondary oil filter

Oil is drawn from a sump through strainer 2 by pump 4 and delivered to primary filler 6. Some of the outflow from filter 6 passes through secondary filter 11, undergoing therein additional purification, and is returned into the sump. The main flow of oil leaving the primary filter enters an oil gallery (on the 6ч engine, oil passes cooler 7 arranged downflow of the primary filter) wherefrom oil reaches the main bearings and camshaft bearing as shown in Fig.… READ THE REST

Fuel System

The fuel system serves to feed fuel in metered amounts (depending on the load) into the turbulence combustion chambers under a high pressure, to atomize the fuel into minute particles and to assure regularity and requisite sequence of the injections.

Fuel system, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines

Fig. Fuel system, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines: l – drain lube; 2 — fuel injection pump; 3 — high-pressure line; 4 — injector; 5 — leak-off tube; 6 — fuel filter; 7 — line from filter to fuel injection pumps; 8 — line from fuel feed pump to filter; 9 — fuel inlet; 10 — fuel feed pump

Fuel system; 4ч, 6ч, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21 and П22 diesel engines

Fig. Fuel system; 4ч, 6ч, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21 and П22 diesel engines: 1 — drain tube; 2 — fuel injection pump; 3 — high-pressure line; 4 — injector; 5 — leak-off tube; 6 — fuel filter; 7 — line from filter to fuel injection pump; 8 — line from fuel feed pump to filter; 9 — fuel inlet; 10 — fuel feed pump

Fuel is drawn by fuel feed pump 10 from a service tank and delivered to fuel filter 6.… READ THE REST

Valve Gear

The camshaft obtains the drive from the crankshaft through the timing gears. The cams acting upon the tappets, pushrods and rocker arms cause the valves to open in a strict sequence.

Connecting rod

Fig. Connecting rod, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5112, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines: 1 — camshaft timing gear; 2 — ratchet wheel; 3 — key; 4 — tab washer; 5 — tappet; 6 — exhaust valve pushrod; 7 — compression release handle; 8 — compression release spindle; 9 — disc of compression release spindle; 10 — inlet valve pushrod; 11 – spring; 12— housing; 13 — spindle; 14 — driven bevel gear; 15 — drive bevel gear; 16 — cover plate; 17 — tachometer drive; 18— nut; 19 — bearing housing; 20 — arm; 21 — camshaft; 22 — ball bearing; 23 — spacer ring

Camshaft 21 rests in two rolling-contact bearings and is provided with six cams. Cams 1 and 6 control the operation of the exhaust valves, cams 3 and 4 are linked up with the inlet valves and cams 2 and 5, which are of somewhat narrower configuration, operate the fuel injection pumps; one of the last-named cams also imparts motion to the fuel feed pump.… READ THE REST

Connecting Rod-Crank Mechanism

Diesel engines are fitted with steel crankshafts which are forged, heat-treated and accommodated in block recesses.

Crankshaft

Crankshaft 29 rests in the main bearings by means of its journals; in addition, thrust bearing 32 prevents the crankshaft from axial displacement. The bearings are splash-lubricated except for the crankpin bearings which are taken care of by the oil reaching them through oil passages due to the action of lubricating ring 41 which is fitted to the front end of the crankshaft with a slight clearance. Flywheel 27 is fitted to the tapered end of the crankshaft and held in place by key 28 and nut 30.

Diesel engines 5Д2, 5Д2-1 (longitudinal section)

Fig. Diesel engines 5Д2, 5Д2-1 (longitudinal section): 24 — strainer; 25 — flywheel casing; 26 — flywheel gear ring; 27 — flywheel; 28 — key; 29 – crankshaft; 30 — flywheel nut; 31 — flywheel pin; 32 — thrust bearing; 33 – tachometer transmitter; 34 — cylinder head cover; 35 — pump rack leverage; 36 — speed governor; 37 — mounting plate; 38 — jacket water pump; 39 — outside water pump; 40 – crankpin bearing sheel; 41 — lubricating ring

Diesel engines 5П2, 8П2, 10П2 (longitudinal section)

Fig.… READ THE REST

Cylinder Head

Each cylinder head is provided with inlet and exhaust passages, turbulence combustion chambers with injectors, heater plugs 19 and cooling jackets. Topping each cylinder head are the valve gear protected by valve covers 8, exhaust manifolds and air cleaner (strainer).

Cylinder head

Fig. Cylinder head: 1 — cylinder head; 2 — rocker arm bracket; 3 — adjusting screw: 4 — rocker arm assembly; 5 — rocker arm fulcrum pin; 6, 20 — nut; 7 — stud; 8 — valve cover; 9 — valve cotter; 10 — valve spring retainer; 11 — safety ring; 12 — valve spring; 13, 21 — gasket; 14 — valve guide; 15 — exhaust valve; 16 — inlet valve; 17 — pin; 18 — turbulence chamber insert; 19 — heater plug; 22 — tube; I — order of cylinder head nuts tensioning… READ THE REST

Cylinder-and-Crankcase Block

Diesel engines are provided each with cast iron cylinder-and-crankcase block 1 which serves to accommodate all the components and units of the engine. Press-fitted into block 1 are cylinder liners 17. The outside surface of the liners is washed by the coolant, and the water jacket is sealed off by shoulders at the top and by rubber rings 20 at the bottom; the shoulders are lapped to the block. Arranged at the front end of the block are timing gears protected by cover plate 37.

Topping the block is cast iron cylinder head 12, two cylinders sharing one cylinder head. The joint between the cylinder head and block is sealed off by asbestos steel gasket 10.

Diesel engines 5Д2, 5Д2-1 (transverse section)

Fig. Diesel engines 5Д2, 5Д2-1 (transverse section): 1 — cylinder-and-crankcase block; 2 — breather body; 3 — oil level gauge; 4 — camshaft; 5 — fuel feed pump; 6 — tappet; 7 — fuel injection pump; 8 — cover plate; 9 — pushrod; 10 — asbestos steel gasket; 11 — beater plug; 12 — cylinder head; 13 — injector; 14 — lifting fixture; 15 — air cleaner; 16 — exhaust manifold; 17 — cylinder liner; 18 — piston; 19 — connecting rod; 20 — packing ring; 21 — starter motor; 22 — block manhole cover; 23 — cooler

Diesel engines

Fig.… READ THE REST