Cooling and Warming-Up System

The cooling system is of the combination closed-circuit type employing water as the coolant and relying for operation on forced circulation in the cylinder heads and on the convection of heat in the block. Jacket water is cooled in a special heat exchanger. Fig. Cooling and warming-up system, 5П2, 8П2, 10П2, П12, П21, П22 and 5П4 diesel engines:1 – exhaust manifold; 2 — valve; 3 — heater; 4 — heater pump; 5 — thermometer; 6 — thermostat; 7 — radiator; 8 — pump; 9 — engine; 10 — cooling of engine; 11 — warming up engine In the diesel engines of the stationary modification, the circulation of jacket wafer goes on in the following way. Pump в delivers water through a lube of manifold 1 into the lower jacket of the cylinder head for cooling the hottest parts such as the exhaust passages, combusting chambers and injectors. Hot water leaves the upper jacket and flows into radiator 7 through thermostat 6. In the radiator, water is cooled down by a flow of air induced by a fait before returning into flic pump. When the jacket water temperature is below 70° C, the thermostat automatically directs the outflow from the jacket back into the pump, bypassing the radiator. The cylinder block is cooled by the outflow from the cylinder head which cools down the cylinder heads in a uniform way due to the convection of heat. The starting of the engine at subzero temperature can be facilitated by incorporating healer 3 into the cooling system. To make the engine limber for starting, water is fed by pump 4 into the boiler of heater 3 wherefrom it reaches the jackets of the cylinder block and cylinder heads. On warming up the liners and cylinder heads, water is returned to pump 4 through thermostat 6. Fig. Cooling system, 5Д2, ДС12, 5Д4 and 6ч diesel engines: 1 — expansion tank; 2 — thermometer; 3 — exhaust manifold; 4 — bleed cock; 5 — diesel engine; 6 — jacket water; 7 — jacket water pump; 8 — thermostat; 9 — jacket water cooler; 10 — outside water pump; 11 — outsido water; 12 - filter; 13 — oil cooler (on 6 ч engine) In the diesel engines of the shipboard modification, pump 7 delivers water into the lower jacket of the cylinder head over a lube of manifold 3. Hot water leaves the upper jacket and flows into the expansion tank...

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Lubricating System

The lubricating system provides a supply of oil to all the rubbing surfaces of the diesel engine and serves to remove impurities from the engine. Fig. Lubricating system, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines: 1 - outflow of oil from sump; 2 — strainer; 3 — thermometer; 4 — oil pump; 5 — pressure gauge; 6 — primary oil filter; 7 — oil line lo speed governor; 8 — oil line to crankshaft and Secondary oil filter; 9 — oil passage to piston pin; 10 — sump; 11 — secondary oil filter Oil is drawn from a sump through strainer 2 by pump 4 and delivered to primary filler 6. Some of the outflow from filter 6 passes through secondary filter 11, undergoing therein additional purification, and is returned into the sump. The main flow of oil leaving the primary filter enters an oil gallery (on the 6ч engine, oil passes cooler 7 arranged downflow of the primary filter) wherefrom oil reaches the main bearings and camshaft bearing as shown in Fig. and the crankpin bearings, being also fed to the governor through oil line 7. Fig. Lubricating system, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч diesel engines: 1 — outflow of oil from sump; 2 — strainer; 3 — thermometer; 4 — oil pump; 5 — pressure gauge; 6 — primary oil filler; 7 - oil cooler (6ч engine); 8 — oil line to secondary oil filter; 9 — oil passage to piston pin; 10 — oil passage to crunkshaft and camshaft hearings; 11 — secondary oil filler; 12 — sump On lubricating the crankpin bearings, oil takes care of the small end bearings which are lubricated through the passages in the connecting rods. The timing gears, cams of the camshafts, tappets, cylinder liners and rolling-contact bearings are all splash-lubricated. A pressure-reducing valve is incorporated into the system to keep the oil pressure within the limits, being fitted into the pump casing on the 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 engines and into the primary filter bracket on the ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч engines. In the event of a pressure built-up, the valve bypasses surplus oil into the sump. The valve-opening pressure is set by screw 13 which must be turned down, using a screwdriver, lo increase the pressure or turned up to decrease same. Preparatory to this adjustment, remove cap 7 and back off nut 8. On...

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Fuel System

The fuel system serves to feed fuel in metered amounts (depending on the load) into the turbulence combustion chambers under a high pressure, to atomize the fuel into minute particles and to assure regularity and requisite sequence of the injections. Fig. Fuel system, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines: l - drain lube; 2 — fuel injection pump; 3 — high-pressure line; 4 — injector; 5 — leak-off tube; 6 — fuel filter; 7 — line from filter to fuel injection pumps; 8 — line from fuel feed pump to filter; 9 — fuel inlet; 10 — fuel feed pump Fig. Fuel system; 4ч, 6ч, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21 and П22 diesel engines: 1 — drain tube; 2 — fuel injection pump; 3 — high-pressure line; 4 — injector; 5 — leak-off tube; 6 — fuel filter; 7 — line from filter to fuel injection pump; 8 — line from fuel feed pump to filter; 9 — fuel inlet; 10 — fuel feed pump Fuel is drawn by fuel feed pump 10 from a service tank and delivered to fuel filter 6. The clean fuel leaving the filter reaches fuel injection pump 2 wherefrom it fed into injectors 4 which inject fuel into the turbulence combustion chambers. At the instant fuel passes through the injector orifice it is atomized. Any fuel leaking between the nozzle valve and the nozzle body is returned into the filter through a leak-off hole in nut 8 and bolt 14. Fig. Injector: 1 — nozzle body; 2 — nozzle valve; 3 — nozzle body nut; 4 — nozzle body holder; 5 — spindle; 6 — spring; 7, 13 — gasket; 8 — nut; 9 — adjusting screw; 10 — lock nut; 11 — cap; 12 — bushing; 14 — bolt Fig. Fuel feed pump: 1, 16 — plug; 2 — stop; 3 — piston spring; 4 — housing; 5, 24 — piston; 6 — guide sleeve; 7 - ball; 8, 20 — piston rod; 9 — tappet; 10 — roller; 11, 18 — fulcrum pin; 12 — pin; 13 - union; 14 — delivery valve; 15 — valve spring; 16 — union; 17 — fuel drain tube; 19 - pump body; 21 — cap holder; 22 — cap; 23 — piston ring; 25 — gasket; 26 — suction calve; 27 — bypass tube; 28 — fuel delivery line The fuel feed pump is of the reciprocating type installed on the...

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Valve Gear

The camshaft obtains the drive from the crankshaft through the timing gears. The cams acting upon the tappets, pushrods and rocker arms cause the valves to open in a strict sequence. Fig. Connecting rod, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5112, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines: 1 — camshaft timing gear; 2 — ratchet wheel; 3 — key; 4 — tab washer; 5 — tappet; 6 — exhaust valve pushrod; 7 — compression release handle; 8 — compression release spindle; 9 — disc of compression release spindle; 10 — inlet valve pushrod; 11 – spring; 12— housing; 13 — spindle; 14 — driven bevel gear; 15 — drive bevel gear; 16 — cover plate; 17 — tachometer drive; 18— nut; 19 — bearing housing; 20 — arm; 21 — camshaft; 22 — ball bearing; 23 — spacer ring Camshaft 21 rests in two rolling-contact bearings and is provided with six cams. Cams 1 and 6 control the operation of the exhaust valves, cams 3 and 4 are linked up with the inlet valves and cams 2 and 5, which are of somewhat narrower configuration, operate the fuel injection pumps; one of the last-named cams also imparts motion to the fuel feed pump. Fig. Camshaft, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21 and П22 diesel engines: 1 — camshaft; 2 — tappet; 3 — pushrod; 4 — compression release spindle; 5 — disc of compression release spindle Camshaft 1 receives support from two bearings mounted in the block and is provided with four cams. While cams 1 and 4 control the exhaust valves, cams 2 and 3 actuate the inlet valves. Fig. Diesel engine 5Д4 (transverse section): 1 — crankcase-and-cylinder block; 2 — breather body; 3 — oil level gauge; 4 - camshaft; 5 — fuel feed pump; 6 — tappet; 7 — fuel injection pump; 8 - cover plale; 9 — pushrod; 10 -  asbestos steel gasket; 11 — heater plug; 12 — cylinder head; 13 — injector; 14 — lifting fixture; 15 — air cleaner; 16 — exhaust manifold; 17 - cylinder liner; 18 — piston; 19 - connecting rod; 20 — packing ring; 21 - starter motor; 22 — manhole cover; 23 — cooler Fig. Diesel engine 5П4 (transverse section): 1 — cylinder-and-crankcase block; 2 — breather body; 3 — oil level gauge; 4 — camshaft; 5 — fuel feed pump; 6 — tappet; 7 — fuel injection pump; 8 — cover plate; 9 — pushrod; 10 — asbestos steel gasket;...

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Connecting Rod-Crank Mechanism

Diesel engines are fitted with steel crankshafts which are forged, heat-treated and accommodated in block recesses. Crankshaft Crankshaft 29 rests in the main bearings by means of its journals; in addition, thrust bearing 32 prevents the crankshaft from axial displacement. The bearings are splash-lubricated except for the crankpin bearings which are taken care of by the oil reaching them through oil passages due to the action of lubricating ring 41 which is fitted to the front end of the crankshaft with a slight clearance. Flywheel 27 is fitted to the tapered end of the crankshaft and held in place by key 28 and nut 30. Fig. Diesel engines 5Д2, 5Д2-1 (longitudinal section): 24 — strainer; 25 — flywheel casing; 26 — flywheel gear ring; 27 — flywheel; 28 — key; 29 - crankshaft; 30 — flywheel nut; 31 — flywheel pin; 32 — thrust bearing; 33 - tachometer transmitter; 34 — cylinder head cover; 35 — pump rack leverage; 36 — speed governor; 37 — mounting plate; 38 — jacket water pump; 39 — outside water pump; 40 - crankpin bearing sheel; 41 — lubricating ring Fig. Diesel engines 5П2, 8П2, 10П2 (longitudinal section): 24 - strainer; 25 — flywheel casing; 26 — flywheel gear ring; 27 — flywheel; 28 — key; 29 — crankshaft; 30 — flywheel nut; 31 — flywheel pin; 32 — thrust bearing; 33 - stud; 34 - cylinder head cover; 35 — pump rack leverage; 36 - speed governor; 37 - mounting plate; 38 — pulley; 39 — jacket water pump; 40 — crankpin bearing shell; 41 — lubricating ring On the 2ч, 4ч and 6ч engines, crankshaft 29 rests with its main journals in bearing shells 32 and is prevented from axial play by split rings 42. An oil gallery running all the way along the block provides a supply of oil which reaches the main bearings through passages and is hence fed to crankpin bearing shells 40. Fig. Diesel engines ДС8, ДС12 (longitudinal section): 22 — strainer; 23 — flywheel casing; 24 — flywheel gear ring; 25 — flywheel; 26 — flywheel pin; 27 — speed governor; 28 — oil filter; 29 — crankshaft; 30 — mounting plate; 31 — jacket water pump; 32 — outside water pump; 33 — crankpin bearing shell; 34 — sump; 36 — cylinder head cover Fig. Diesel engines П12, П21, П22 (longitudinal section): 24 — strainer; 25 — flywheel casing; 26 — flywheel gear ring; 27 —...

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Cylinder Head

Each cylinder head is provided with inlet and exhaust passages, turbulence combustion chambers with injectors, heater plugs 19 and cooling jackets. Topping each cylinder head are the valve gear protected by valve covers 8, exhaust manifolds and air cleaner (strainer). Fig. Cylinder head: 1 — cylinder head; 2 — rocker arm bracket; 3 — adjusting screw: 4 — rocker arm assembly; 5 — rocker arm fulcrum pin; 6, 20 — nut; 7 — stud; 8 — valve cover; 9 — valve cotter; 10 — valve spring retainer; 11 — safety ring; 12 — valve spring; 13, 21 — gasket; 14 — valve guide; 15 — exhaust valve; 16 — inlet valve; 17 — pin; 18 — turbulence chamber insert; 19 — heater plug; 22 — tube; I — order of cylinder head nuts tensioning

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Cylinder-and-Crankcase Block

Diesel engines are provided each with cast iron cylinder-and-crankcase block 1 which serves to accommodate all the components and units of the engine. Press-fitted into block 1 are cylinder liners 17. The outside surface of the liners is washed by the coolant, and the water jacket is sealed off by shoulders at the top and by rubber rings 20 at the bottom; the shoulders are lapped to the block. Arranged at the front end of the block are timing gears protected by cover plate 37. Topping the block is cast iron cylinder head 12, two cylinders sharing one cylinder head. The joint between the cylinder head and block is sealed off by asbestos steel gasket 10. Fig. Diesel engines 5Д2, 5Д2-1 (transverse section): 1 — cylinder-and-crankcase block; 2 — breather body; 3 — oil level gauge; 4 — camshaft; 5 — fuel feed pump; 6 — tappet; 7 — fuel injection pump; 8 — cover plate; 9 — pushrod; 10 — asbestos steel gasket; 11 — beater plug; 12 — cylinder head; 13 — injector; 14 — lifting fixture; 15 — air cleaner; 16 — exhaust manifold; 17 — cylinder liner; 18 — piston; 19 — connecting rod; 20 — packing ring; 21 — starter motor; 22 — block manhole cover; 23 — cooler Fig. Diesel engines 5Д2, 5Д2-1: 1 — fuel shutoff handle; 2 — governor handwheel; 3 — water pump; 4 — oil pump; 5 - fuel feed pump; 6 — oil level gauge; 7 — switch of starter motor and heater plug; 8 - plug; 9 — injector; 10 — fuel filter; 11 — primary oil filter

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