Attending to the running diesel engine

Take the reading of the instruments when the engine is in running condition; watch the level of water in the expansion tank or radiator; watch the levels of oil in the sump, fuel injection pump housing and governor; watch the level of fuel oil in the fuel tank. Never allow the temperature of the coolant at the outlet from the engine, the temperature and pressure of oil to exceed recommended values. Maintain the level of oil in the sump and governor above the lower mark on the oil gauge or sight glass. Give particular attention to the level of oil in the sump and governor when the engine is hound to operate under the conditions of protracted list or trim. Inspect the joints between engine units as well as those in the cooling, lubricating and fuel system for minor leaks in the form of droplets, which are likely to occur when the engine is in running condition, and eliminate the defect by tightening the relevant nuts or bolts or by replacing the defective gasket during the next servicing of the engine. Never overload the engine without good reasons and avoid protracted idling which may result in a stuck nozzle valve or in the carbonizing of piston rings.

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Diesel engine. Starling Procedure

Set the fuel rack control handle into a position for delivery. Set the governor handwheel into a position corresronding to the starting speed of the engine by turning the handwheel into Ihe maximum speed position and then backing it off through 3 lo 5 revolutions. Engage the cornpression-release gear on the 2ч and 6ч engines by turning handle 7. Fig. Connecting rod, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5112, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines:1 — camshaft timing gear; 2 — ratchet wheel; 3 — key; 4 — tab washer; 5 — tappet; 6 — exhaust valve pushrod; 7 — compression release handle; 8 — compression release spindle; 9 — disc of compression release spindle; 10 — inlet valve pushrod; 11 - spring; 12— housing; 13 — spindle; 14 — driven bevel gear; 15 — drive bevel gear; 16 — cover plate; 17 — tachometer drive; 18— nut; 19 — bearing housing; 20 — arm; 21 — camshaft; 22 — ball bearing; 23 — spacer ring Turn the starter motor switch (shown at 9 in Fig) clockwise into the first position designated “HEATER PLUGS" (свечи), this turns on the heater plugs, and wait till the coil of pilot unit 7 is cherry red. Fig. Schematic diagram of electrical system; 5Д4 and 8Д4 diesel engines:1 — holding winding; 2 — operating winding; 3 — movable contact; 4 — starter motor; 5 — storage battery; 6 — heater plug; 7 — pilot unit of heater plug; 8 — auxiliary resistor; 9 — starter motor switch; 10 — control relay; 11 — ammeter; 12 — generator regulator; 13 — generator Turn the starter motor switch into the end most position labelled “STARTER MOTOR” (стартер) with the result that the starter motor becomes energized. Crank over the engine, releasing the compression-release gear after a few revolutions of the crankshaft on the 2ч and 6ч engine, and turn off the starter motor as soon as the engine picks up the cycle. Turn off the heater plugs only after the engine is steadily under own power. A point to be noted is that the cranking period must never exceed 15 s and, if during this period the engine fails to pick up the cycle, the starter motor must be deenergized. Recranking is allowed after a break lasting between 1 and 2 min. Three abortive attempts in succession to start the engine call for troubleshooting the engine and eliminating the defect. Check the oil pressure which must be at least...

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Diesel engine. Preparing for maiden starting

Remove the coat of rust preventer from the engine. Make sure the engine is well secured to the bedframe and properly coupled to the driven machine. Make sure all the auxiliaries are mounted on the engine in a secure way. Disconnect the load. Fill the fuel tank with fuel of the grade specified for the given ambient temperature. Open the fuel shut-off cock and hand-prime the fuel system so as to enable trapped air to escape through the bleed screws provided in the filter and fuel pump. Fill the sump with oil, pouring same through the breather, so that the oil level is at the top mark on the oil level gauge. Fill the governor with oil so that its level is at the top mark on the glass of the level gauge; fill the pump with oil so that its level is at the check hole. Fill the bath of the inertia-type oil filter so that its level is at the check hole. Fill the cooling system with soft water containing potassium bichromate so that the expansion tank or radiator is filled to 75—80% of its capacity. Warm up the water and oil to not over 80° С preparatory to the filling if the ambient temperature is under 8°C. Use heater 3 on the engines of the stationary modification. Fig. Cooling and warming-up system, 5П2, 8П2, 10П2, П12, П21, П22 and 5П4 diesel engines:1 - exhaust manifold; 2 — valve; 3 — heater; 4 — heater pump; 5 — thermometer; 6 — thermostat; 7 — radiator; 8 — pump; 9 — engine; 10 — cooling of engine; 11 — warming up engine Prime the outside water pump on the 5Д4, 8Д4 and 6ч engines and open the cocks in the suction and delivery lines. Hand-crank the engine and make sure it rotates Freely. Check the valves for correct clearance, measuring same between the valve stem and rocker arm, and make sure the action of the fuel pump rack and governor leverage is not sluggish. Lubricate the rocker arm bearings and the valve clearance adjusting screws with lube oil; lubricate the tips of valve stems with fuel oil. Check the storage battery for correct charging. Make sure no foreign articles (waste, tools) are present on, or in close proximity to, the engine and the driven machine.

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Safe Working with Diesel Engine. Safety rules

Authorized to attend to the diesel engine are only those persons who have received special training, have been briefed on safety rules and have passed a test confirming their knowledge of the fundamentals of engineering and of this publication. Never touch any rotating part of the engine by hand or tool and never repair the engine in running condition. Never use open fire as a source of light while filling the engine with fuel or oil; eliminate any leak of fuel or oil without delay. Use portable low-voltage lamps (not above 36 V) for lighting purposes. Install the engine in a clean, well lighted and ventilated engine room wherein a fire extinguisher is provided; keep the engine room tidy. Never keep inflammables in close proximity to the exhaust pipe. Hoist the engine with the aid of lifting fixture only. Use, when repairing the engine, only those tools which are in good working order. Place guards at all rotating parts such as pulleys, fan, flywheel, etc.

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