Vintage car

A vintage car is, in the most general sense, an old automobile, and in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930. Such enthusiasts have categorization schemes for ages of cars that enforce distinctions between antique cars, vintage cars, classic cars, and so on. The classification criteria vary, but consensus within any country is often maintained by major car clubs. 1919 Ford Model T coupe 1921 Hudson Super Six phaeton A restored 1925 Flint touring car (U.S.A.) at a rally in Australia 1930 Cadillac V-16 452 Sport series phaeton   History The vintage era in the automotive world was a time of transition. The car started off in 1919 as still something of a rarity, and ended up, in 1930, well on the way towards ubiquity. In fact, automobile production at the end of this period was not matched again until the 1950s. In the intervening years, most industrialized countries built nationwide road systems with the result that, towards the end of the period, the ability to negotiate unpaved roads was no longer a prime consideration of automotive design. In today's terms, a vintage car is defined the same as a classic. Cars became much more practical, convenient and comfortable during this period. Car heating was introduced, as was the in-car radio. Four-wheel braking from a common foot pedal was introduced, as was the use of hydraulically actuated brakes. Towards the end of the vintage era, the system of octane rating of fuel was introduced, allowing comparison between fuels. In 1923 the gasoline additive Ethyl made its debut at the Indy 500 that resulted in a boost in octane from the 1950s to the 1980s In the United States drive-in restaurants were introduced as well as suburban shopping centers and motels. Alfred P. Sloan and Harley Earl of General Motors, and Walter P. Chrysler capitalized on advertising the automobile’s role in the life of the consumer for more than just the utilitarian value compared with the horse. The stock market crash of 1929 started the layoff of automotive workers and many new companies went bankrupt but over two million cars were still produced in 1929 and 1930. United States Federal road and highway acts The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 was the first federal highway act. War and lack of funding hampered any positive results of this act. The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 (Phipps Act) started a 50/50 matching fund to states for road building and resulted in the creation of new and improved roads. During this period as well as the car adapting to society, there were better roads, and society began to adapt to the car. Dwight D. Eisenhower participated in the highly publicized Transcontinental...

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Classic car

A classic car is an older automobile; the exact definition varies around the world. The common theme is of an older car with enough historical interest to be collectable and worth preserving or restoring rather than scrapping. Cars 20 years and older typically fall into the classic class. Organizations such as the Classic Car Club of America (CCCA) and the Antique Automobile Club of America (AACA) maintain a list of eligible unmodified cars that are called "classic". These are described as "fine" or "distinctive" automobile, either American or foreign built, produced between 1915–1998 In the UK, 'classic cars' range from veteran (pre–First World War), to vintage (1919–1930), to post-vintage (1930s). Post–Second World War "classic cars" are not precisely defined and the term is often applied to any older vehicle.   1931 Pierce-Arrow with body by LeBaron United States Cars 100 years and older typically fall into the antique class and this includes the "Brass Era car" that are defined by the Horseless Carriage Club of America (HCCA) as "any pioneer gas, steam and electric motor vehicle built or manufactured prior to January 1, 1916." The "classic" term is often applied loosely by owners to any car. Legal definitions Legally, most states have time-based rules for the definition of "historic" or "classic" for purposes such as antique vehicle registration. For example, Maryland defines historic vehicles as 20 calendar years old or older and they "must not have been substantially altered, remodeled or remanufactured from the manufacturers original design" while West Virginia defines motor vehicles manufactured at least 25 years prior to the current year as eligible for "classic" car license plates. Despite this, at many American classic car shows, automobiles typically range from the 1920s to the 1970s. Recently, many 1980s and even early 1990s cars are considered being "classic automobiles". Examples of cars at such shows include the Chevrolet Bel-Air, Ford Model T, Dodge Charger, Ford Deuce Coupe, and 1949 Ford. Meanwhile, the Concours d'Elegance car shows feature prestigious automobiles such as the Cadillac V16 or pre-1940 Rolls-Royce models. There are also terms as "modern customs", "exotics", or "collectibles" that cover cars such as the AMC Gremlin or Ford Pinto. There are differences in the exact identification of a "classic car". Division by separate eras include: horseless carriages (19th-century experimental automobiles such as the Daimler Motor Carriage), antique cars (brass era cars such as the Ford Model T), and classic cars (typically 1930s cars such as the Cord 812). Some also include muscle cars, with the 1974 model year as the cutoff. Classic Car Club of America 1932 Nash Advanced Eight - a CCCA "Full Classic" car The Classic Car Club of America describes a CCCA Classic as a "fine" or "distinctive" automobile, either American or foreign built, produced between 1915...

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History of plug-in hybrids

The history of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) spans a little more than a century, but most of the significant commercial developments have taken place after 2002. The revival of interest in this automotive technology together with all-electric cars is due to advances in battery and power management technologies, and concerns about increasingly volatile oil prices and supply disruption, and also the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Between 2003 and 2010 most PHEVs on the roads were conversions of production hybrid electric vehicles, and the most prominent PHEVs were aftermarket conversions of 2004 or later Toyota Prius, which have had plug-in charging and more lead-acid batteries added and their electric-only range extended. As of December 2015, over 25 models of highway-capable plug-in hybrids have been launched in several markets since December 2008, including the BYD F3DM (out of production), the Chevrolet Volt and its siblings Opel/Vauxhall Ampera and Holden Volt, Prius Plug-in Hybrid (out of production), Fisker Karma (out of production), Ford C-Max Energi, Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid, Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid (out of production), Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, Ford Fusion Energi, McLaren P1 (limited production), Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid, Cadillac ELR, BYD Qin, Volkswagen XL1 (limited production), BMW i8, Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Volkswagen Golf GTE, Audi A3 e-tron, Porsche 918 Spyder (limited edition), Mercedes-Benz S 500 Plug-in Hybrid, SAIC Roewe 550 PHEV, Mercedes-Benz C 350e Plug-in Hybrid, Volvo S60L PHEV, BYD Tang, Volkswagen Passat GTE, Volvo XC90 T8, BMW X5 xDrive40e and Hyundai Sonata PHEV. Global sales of plug-in hybrids grew from over 300 units in 2010 to almost 9,000 in 2011, jumped to over 60,000 in 2012, and reached almost 222,000 in 2015. As of December 2015, the United States is the world's largest plug-in hybrid car market with a stock of 193,770 units, followed by China with 86,580 vehicles, the Netherlands with 78,160, Japan with 55,470 units, and the UK with 28,250. As of June 2016, about 640,000 highway legal plug-in hybrid electric cars have been sold worldwide since December 2008, out of total global sales of over 1.5 million light-duty plug-in electric cars. As of June 2016, the Volt/Ampera family is the world's all-time top selling plug-in hybrid car, with global sales of about 117,300 units, followed by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with global sales of about 107,400 units, and the Toyota Prius PHEV with more than 75,400 units delivered globally. The BYD F3DM was the world's first mass produced plug-in hybridpassenger car, launched in China for fleet sales in December 2008. The Chevrolet Volt family is the world's all-time top selling plug-in hybrid electric car. Global sales passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2015. 1899-1999 Hybrid vehicles were produced beginning as early as 1899 by Lohner-Porsche. Early hybrids could be charged from an external source before operation. However, the term "plug-in hybrid" has come to mean a hybrid vehicle that can be charged from a standard electrical wall socket. The Lohner-Porsche...

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History of the electric vehicle

Electric vehicles first appeared in the mid-19th century. An electric vehicle held the vehicular land speed record until around 1900. The high cost, low top speed, and short range of battery electric vehicles, compared to later internal combustion engine vehicles, led to a worldwide decline in their use; although electric vehicles have continued to be used in the form of electric trains and other niche uses. At the beginning of the 21st century, interest in electric and other alternative fuel vehicles has increased due to growing concern over the problems associated with hydrocarbon-fueled vehicles, including damage to the environment caused by their emissions, and the sustainability of the current hydrocarbon-based transportation infrastructure as well as improvements in electric vehicle technology. Since 2010, combined sales of all-electric cars and utility vans achieved 1 million units delivered globally in September 2016. The General Motors EV1, one of the cars introduced due to the California Air Resources Boardmandate, had a range of 260 km (160 miles) with NiMH batteries in 1999. The Tesla Model 3 was a car that got over pre-orders 518,000 at its peak. The long range version had a range of 500 km (310 miles). The car began shipping in 2017.  Early history Electric model cars The invention of the first model electric vehicle is attributed to various people. In 1828, Ányos Jedlik, a Hungarian who invented an early type of electric motor, created a small model car powered by his new motor. In 1834, Vermont blacksmith Thomas Davenport built a similar contraption which operated on a short, circular, electrified track. In 1834, Professor Sibrandus Stratingh of Groningen, the Netherlands and his assistant Christopher Becker created a small-scale electrical car, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells. Electric locomotives The first known electric car was built in 1837, in Scotland by chemist Robert Davidson of Aberdeen. It was powered by galvanic cells (batteries). Davidson later built a larger locomotive named Galvani, exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841. The 7,100-kilogram (7-long-ton) vehicle had two direct-drive reluctance motors, with fixed electromagnets acting on iron bars attached to a wooden cylinder on each axle, and simple commutators. It hauled a load of 6,100 kilograms (6 long tons) at 6.4 kilometres per hour (4 mph) for a distance of 2.4 km (1.5 miles). It was tested on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in September of the following year, but the limited power from batteries prevented its general use. It was destroyed by railway workers, who saw it as a threat to their security of employment. Between 1832 and 1839, Scottish inventor Robert Anderson also invented a crude electrical carriage. A patent for the use of rails as conductors of electric current was granted in England in 1840, and similar patents...

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History of the automobile

The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, and utility preferences. In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot. In 1808, François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen. In 1870 Siegfried Marcus built the first gasoline powered combustion engine, which he placed on a pushcart, building four progressively sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced later cars. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine. The car's second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch and a brake. The Ford Model T (foreground) and Volkswagen Beetle (background) are among the most mass-produced car models in history. The four-stroke petrol (gasoline) internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. The battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the electric motor, and Gaston Planté, who invented the lead–acid battery in 1859. In 1885, Karl Benz developed a petrol or gasoline powered automobile. This is also considered to be the first "production" vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered by a single cylinder four-stroke engine. In 1913, the Ford Model T, created by the Ford Motor Company five years prior, became the first automobile to be mass-produced on a moving assembly line. By 1927, Ford had produced over 15,000,000 Model T automobiles. At the turn of the 20th century electrically powered automobiles became a popular alternative method of automobile propulsion. Power sources The early history of the automobile was concentrated on the search for a reliable portable power unit to propel the vehicle. Steam-powered wheeled vehicles 17th and 18th centuries Cugnot's steam wagon, the second (1771) version Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built a steam-powered vehicle around 1672 as a toy for the Chinese Emperor. It was small scale and could not carry a driver but it was, quite possibly, the first working steam-powered vehicle ('auto-mobile'). Steam-powered self-propelled vehicles large enough to transport people and cargo were first devised in the late 18th century. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrated his fardier à vapeur ("steam dray"), an experimental steam-driven artillery tractor, in 1770 and 1771. As Cugnot's design...

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Antique car

An antique car is an automobile that is an antique. Narrower definitions vary based on how old a car must be to qualify. The Antique Automobile Club of America defines an antique car as over 25 years of age. However, the legal definitions for the purpose of antique vehicle registration vary widely. The antique car era includes the Veteran era, the Brass era, and the Vintage era, which range from the beginning of the automobile up to the 1930s. Later cars are often described as classic cars. In original or originally restored condition antiques are very valuable and are usually either protected and stored or exhibited in car shows but are very rarely driven. 1916 Ford Model T History The Veteran car era, Brass car era, and the Vintage car era, are part of the Antique car classification as all automobiles produced prior to World War I are considered to be antiques. Europe On Christmas Eve in 1801 Richard Trevithick of England demonstrated a steam-powered carriage, the Puffing Devil, that is considered the first horseless carriage, but Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot has the claim of the first steam-powered vehicle with the fardier à vapeur in 1770. The first production of automobiles was by Karl Benz in 1888 in Germany and, under licence from Benz, in France by Emile Roger. The time line is not exact but Thomas Davenport as well as Robert Anderson (of Scotland) built a battery electric car between 1832 and 1839. United States The era of automobiles began in the U.S. when George Selden of Rochester, NY filed a patent on May 8, 1879, but the patent was not approved until November 5, 1895. This was the first U.S. patent for an automobile. By the time a patent was approved many automobiles were in production. Charles Duryea built a three-wheeled, gasoline-powered vehicle in 1893, and his company built 13 cars of the same design in 1896. Gasoline automobiles were produced by Elwood Haynes in 1894, by Ransom Olds in 1895, Charles King and Henry Ford in 1896. Automobile races stirred the public interest and bicycle and buggy manufacturers began to convert to making automobiles. An antique car on a poster advertising a race in Makarska, Croatia Racing Racing began shortly after the production of the automobile. The first official auto race in the world was a 732-mile, round trip race, in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race. The first race in the U.S. was the six car, 54.36 mile race, from Chicago’s Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinoisand back. Racing helped spur inventions that assisted in improvements to the automotive industry. Automobile production eras Veteran Era The Veteran era began with the invention of the automobile and continued up to 1896. Brass Era The Brass Era is considered from...

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Transverse leaf spring and solid axle front suspension of early Ford cars

Transverse leaf spring and solid axle front suspension of early Ford cars is a type of automotive front suspension that has been most common in early Ford Motor Company products. "Suicide front axle" is a term that has been used for it. The configuration consists of a one-piece axle (solid front axle), to the ends of which the steerable front wheels are mounted. The axle receives its vertical and transverse support from a transverse leaf spring (leaf springs were often used for support in more than one direction), and its longitudinal support from fore-aft links sometimes called "radius rods" which are attached (via pivots) to the ends of the axle at their forward end and to the sides of the chassis (again via pivots) at their aft end. The ends of the transverse leaf spring can either tie to the top of the rods, or to the top of the solid axle. The transverse leaf spring is attached at its center to the center of the chassis's front cross member. 1919 Ford Model T Advantages and disadvantages In addition to simplicity lightness and compact shape, at least in some directions, since only the small end of the spring was attached to the wheel, it gave low unsprung weight. In addition to its contribution to ride and handling, this reduced wheel bearing loads and therefore allowed smaller cheaper bearings. Apparently the control of wheel motion was inferior to that of other suspension designs, even those of the first half of the 20th century. The modern Corvette leaf spring design does not use the spring for location.

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