Hybrid turbocharger

A hybrid turbocharger is an electric turbocharger consisting of a high speed turbine-generator and a high speed electric air compressor. The turbine and compressor are high-speed aeromachines, as in a conventional turbocharger. The electrical motors run at speeds in excess of 120,000 rpm and when used as generators, generate electricity at up to 98.5% electrical efficiency. High electrical efficiency is paramount, because there is no mechanical link between the turbine and compressor. In other words, hybrid turbocharger refers to a series hybrid setup, in which compressor speed and power are independent from turbine speed and power. This design flexibility leads to further improvements in turbine and compressor efficiency, beyond a conventional turbocharger. Basic schematic of an Aeristech Hybrid Turbocharger Aeristech 2009 prototype electric compressor Physical arrangement The electric motors utilize permanent magnets which have a higher efficiency than standard high speed induction motors. Induction motors induce an electro-magnetic field into a solid rotor core. Operating modes Acceleration mode for an HTT Turbocharger Acceleration When the driver depresses the throttle, the HTT initially acts like an electric supercharger. The compressor motor is powered from the energy storage medium allowing it to accelerate to full operating speed in <500 ms. This rate of acceleration eliminates the turbo lag which is a major limiting factor on the performance of standard turbocharged engines. During this transient stage, the engine control unit (ECU) on a standard turbocharged engine uses a combination of sensors such as lambda sensors and air mass flow sensors to regulate the fuel flow rate. In an HTT equipped engine the ECU can deliver the precise fuel flow rate for complete combustion more accurately. This is achieved by directly controlling the air flow rate and boost pressure via control of the compressor speed. Charging Charging mode for an HTT Turbocharger At high engine speeds there is more energy generated by the turbine than is required by the compressor. Under these conditions, the excess energy can be used to recharge the energy storage for the next acceleration phase or used to power some of the auxiliary loads such as an electric air conditioning system. When combined with a variable geometry turbine, the back pressure on the engine can be varied according to the electrical demands of the vehicle and charge state of the energy storage medium. Development is underway for replacing battery energy storage with a super capacitor which can be charged and discharged very quickly. Steady state For the majority of the time the hybrid turbocharger is operating, the compressor and turbine power (not necessarily speed) will be matched. This gives an extra degree...

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Twincharger

Twincharger refers to a compound forced induction system used on some piston-type internal combustion engines. It is a combination of an exhaust-driven turbocharger and an engine-driven supercharger, each mitigating the weaknesses of the other. A belt-driven or shaft-driven supercharger offers exceptional response and low-rpm performance as it has no lag time between the application of throttle and pressurization of the manifold (assuming that it is a positive-displacement supercharger such as a Roots type or twin-screw and not a Centrifugal compressor supercharger, which does not provide boost until the engine has reached higher RPMs). When combined with a large turbocharger — if the "turbo" was used by itself, it would offer unacceptable lag and poor response in the low-rpm range — the proper combination of the two can offer a zero-lag powerband with high torque at lower engine speeds and increased power at the higher end. Twincharging is therefore desirable for small-displacement motors (such as VW's 1.4TSI), especially those with a large operating rpm, since they can take advantage of an artificially broad torque band over a large speed range. Twincharging does not refer to a twin-turbo arrangement, but rather when two different kinds of compressors are used. Technical description A twincharging system combines a supercharger and turbocharger in a complementary arrangement, with the intent of one component's advantage compensating for the other component's disadvantage. There are two common types of twincharger systems: series and parallel. Series The series arrangement, the more common arrangement of twinchargers, is set up such that one compressor's (turbo or supercharger) output feeds the inlet of another. A sequentially-organized supercharger is connected to a medium- to large-sized turbocharger. The supercharger provides near-instant manifold pressure (eliminating turbo lag, which would otherwise result when the turbocharger is not up to its operating speed). Once the turbocharger has reached operating speed, the supercharger can either continue compounding the pressurized air to the turbocharger inlet (yielding elevated intake pressures), or it can be bypassed and/or mechanically decoupled from the drivetrain via an electromagnetic clutch and bypass valve (increasing efficiency of the induction system). Other series configurations exist where no bypass system is employed and both compressors are in continuous duty. As a result, compounded boost is always produced as the pressure ratios of the two compressors are multiplied, not added. In other words, if a turbocharger which produced 10 psi (0.7 bar) (pressure ratio = 1.7) alone blew into a supercharger which also produced 10 psi alone, the resultant manifold pressure would be 27 psi (1.9 bar) (PR=2.8) rather than 20 psi (1.4 bar) (PR=2.3). This form of series twincharging allows for the production of...

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Twin-turbo

Twin-turbo or biturbo refers to a turbocharged engine in which two turbochargers compress the intake charge. More specifically called "parallel twin-turbos". Other kinds of turbocharging include sequential turbocharging, and staged turbocharging. The latter is used in diesel automobile racing applications. 3.5 Ford EcoBoost engine (Twin Turbo) Parallel twin-turbo Paralleled twin-turbo refers to the turbocharger configuration in which two identical turbochargers function simultaneously, splitting the turbocharging duties equally. Each turbocharger is driven by half of the engine's spent exhaust energy. In most applications, the compressed air from both turbos is combined in a common intake manifold and sent to the individual cylinders. Usually, each turbocharger is mounted to its own individual exhaust/turbo manifold, but on inline-type engines both turbochargers can be mounted to a single turbo manifold. Parallel twin turbos applied to V-shaped engines are usually mounted with one turbo assigned to each cylinder bank, providing packaging symmetry and simplifying plumbing over a single turbo setup. When used on inline engines, parallel twin turbos are commonly applied with two smaller turbos, which can provide similar performance with less turbo lag than a single larger turbo. Some examples of parallel twin-turbo inline engines are Nissan's RB26DETT, BMW's N54 and Volvo's B6284T and B6294T. Some examples of V formation engines with parallel twin-turbos include Mitsubishi's 6A12TT, 6A13TT and 6G72TT; Nissan's VG30DETT and VR38DETT; and Audi's 1997-2002 S4 (B5), 1997-2005 A6, and 2003-2017 RS6. While a parallel twin-turbo set-up theoretically has less turbo lag than a single turbocharger set up, this is not always the case due to many factors.  Marginally reduced combined inertial resistance,  simplified exhaust plumbing, and the simultaneous spooling of both turbos means that there can still be a noticeable bit of lag, especially in high-flow turbo/high boost applications. Some ways to counter this are to use a light pressure set up with smaller turbos, where the turbos are designed to output less boost but spool earlier. While this setup sacrifices some top end power, it still has less lag than a similar engine with a single turbo set up making the same power. Another system would be the use of variable geometry turbochargers. This system changes the angle of the guide vanes depending on the exhaust pressure, giving the system excellent power throughout the rev range. Once used mainly in turbocharged diesel engines, Chrysler was the first to use it in mass-production gasoline-powered vehicles with the Shelby CSX, debuted in 1989. It is possible to use parallel operation with more than two turbochargers. Two such examples are the Bugatti EB110 and Bugatti Veyron, both of which run four turbochargers in parallel. The EB110 runs 4 turbos on a 3.5 litre V12 engine, producing 542 hp (404 kW) at 8000 rpm,...

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Supercharger

A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the engine more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work, thus increasing power. Power for the supercharger can be provided mechanically by means of a belt, gear, shaft, or chain connected to the engine's crankshaft. Common usage restricts the term supercharger to mechanically driven units; when power is instead provided by a turbine powered by exhaust gas, a supercharger is known as a turbocharger or just a turbo - or in the past a turbosupercharger. Roots type supercharger on AMC V8 engine for dragstrip racing History In 1848 or 1849, G. Jones of Birmingham, England brought out a Roots-style compressor. In 1860, brothers Philander and Francis Marion Roots, founders of Roots Blower Company of Connersville, Indiana, patented the design for an air mover for use in blast furnaces and other industrial applications. The world's first functional, actually tested engine supercharger was made by Dugald Clerk, who used it for the first two-stroke engine in 1878. Gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in 1885. Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in 1902. An early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1908 which reportedly reached a speed of 100 mph (160 km/h). The world's first series-produced cars with superchargers were Mercedes 6/25/40 hp and Mercedes 10/40/65 hp. Both models were introduced in 1921 and had Roots superchargers. They were distinguished as "Kompressor" models, the origin of the Mercedes-Benz badging which continues today. On March 24, 1878 Heinrich Krigar of Germany obtained patent #4121, patenting the first ever screw-type compressor. Later that same year on August 16 he obtained patent #7116 after modifying and improving his original designs. His designs show a two-lobe rotor assembly with each rotor having the same shape as the other. Although the design resembled the Roots style compressor, the "screws" were clearly shown with 180 degrees of twist along their length. Unfortunately, the technology of the time was not sufficient to produce such a unit, and Heinrich made no further progress with the screw compressor. Nearly half a century later, in 1935, Alf Lysholm, who was working for Ljungstroms Angturbin AB (later known as Svenska Rotor Maskiner AB or SRM in 1951), patented a design with five female and four male rotors. He also patented the method for machining the compressor rotors. Types of supercharger There are two main types of superchargers defined according to the method of gas transfer: positive displacement and dynamic compressors. Positive displacement blowers and compressors deliver an almost constant level of pressure increase at all engine speeds (RPM). Dynamic compressors do not deliver pressure at low speeds;...

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Turbocharger

A turbocharger, or colloquially turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure (and for that matter, ram air intakes) alone. Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Today the term "supercharger" is typically applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices. The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine, often through a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger. Turbochargers are commonly used on truck, car, train, aircraft, and construction equipment engines. They are most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful in automotive fuel cells. Cut-away view of an air foil bearing-supported turbocharger History Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885. The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi (1879–1959), the head of diesel engine research at Gebrüder Sulzer (now simply called Sulzer), engine manufacturing company in Winterthur, who received a patent in 1905 for using a compressor driven by exhaust gases to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase power output, but it took another 20 years for the idea to come to fruition. During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 ft (4,300 m) to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power loss usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s. Turbochargers were also used in aviation, most widely used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U.S. aircraft with turbochargers — which included mass-produced ones designed by General Electric for American aviation use — include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38...

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