History of plug-in hybrids

The history of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) spans a little more than a century, but most of the significant commercial developments have taken place after 2002. The revival of interest in this automotive technology together with all-electric cars is due to advances in battery and power management technologies, and concerns about increasingly volatile oil prices and supply disruption, and also the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[3][4][5] Between 2003 and 2010 most PHEVs on the roads were conversions of production hybrid electric vehicles, and the most prominent PHEVs were aftermarket conversions of 2004 or later Toyota Prius, which have had plug-in charging and more lead-acid batteries added and their electric-only range extended.

As of December 2015, over 25 models of highway-capable plug-in hybrids have been launched in several markets since December 2008, including the BYD F3DM (out of production), the Chevrolet Volt and its siblings Opel/Vauxhall Ampera and Holden Volt, Prius Plug-in Hybrid (out of production), Fisker Karma (out of production), Ford C-Max Energi, Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid, Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid (out of production), Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, Ford Fusion Energi, McLaren P1 (limited production), Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid, Cadillac ELR, BYD Qin, Volkswagen XL1 (limited production), BMW i8, Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Volkswagen Golf GTE, Audi A3 e-tron, Porsche 918 Spyder (limited edition), Mercedes-Benz S 500 Plug-in Hybrid, SAIC Roewe 550 PHEV, Mercedes-Benz C 350e Plug-in Hybrid, Volvo S60L PHEV, BYD Tang, Volkswagen Passat GTE, Volvo XC90 T8, BMW X5 xDrive40e and Hyundai Sonata PHEV.

Global sales of plug-in hybrids grew from over 300 units in 2010 to almost 9,000 in 2011, jumped to over 60,000 in 2012, and reached almost 222,000 in 2015.[6] As of December 2015, the United States is the world’s largest plug-in hybrid car market with a stock of 193,770 units, followed by China with 86,580 vehicles, the Netherlands with 78,160, Japan with 55,470 units, and the UK with 28,250.[6] As of June 2016, about 640,000 highway legal plug-in hybrid electric cars have been sold worldwide since December 2008, out of total global sales of over 1.5 million light-duty plug-in electric cars.[6][7][8] As of June 2016, the Volt/Ampera family is the world’s all-time top selling plug-in hybrid car, with global sales of about 117,300 units, followed by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with global sales of about 107,400 units, and the Toyota Prius PHEV with more than 75,400 units delivered globally.[9]

The BYD F3DM was the world’s first mass produced plug-in hybridpassenger car, launched in China for fleet sales in December 2008.[1]

The Chevrolet Volt family is the world’s all-time top selling plug-in hybrid electric car. Global sales passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2015.[2]

1899-1999

Hybrid vehicles were produced beginning as early as 1899 by Lohner-Porsche. Early hybrids could be charged from an external source before operation. However, the term “plug-in hybrid” has come to mean a hybrid vehicle that can be charged from a standard electrical wall socket.

The Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybridwas the first gasoline-electric hybridautomobile.

The July 1969 issue of Popular Science magazine featured an article on the General Motors XP-883 plug-in hybrid. The concept commuter vehicle housed six 12-volt lead acid batteries in the trunk area and a transverse-mounted DC electric motor turning a front-wheel drive trans-axle. The gasoline-powered engine was connected to the trans-axle via a worm gear.[10] The car could be plugged into a standard 110 Volt AC outlet for recharging.

In 1971, Dr. Andy Frank, the inventor of the modern PHEV, begins working on hybrids and PHEVs. He is professor of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering at the University of California at Davis.[11]

The September 1975 issue of Popular Mechanics magazine featured a cover story on an experimental “turbo-electric” hybrid that “plugs in overnight for thrifty driving around town.”[12] Built by electronics engineer Harry Grepke, the vehicle used eight 12-volt truck batteries and a turbine genset. Grepke claimed an all-electric range of 50 miles (80 km).[13]

In 1989, Audi produced its first iteration of the Audi Duo, a plug-in parallel hybrid based on the Audi 100 Avant Quattro. This car had a 12.6 bhp (9.4 kW) Siemens electric motor which drove the rear wheels. A trunk-mounted nickel–cadmium battery supplied energy to the motor that drove the rear wheels. The vehicle’s front wheels were powered by a 2.3-litre five-cylinder engine with an output of 136 bhp (101 kW). The intent was to produce a vehicle which could operate on the engine in the country and electric mode in the city. Mode of operation could be selected by the driver. Just ten vehicles are believed to have been made; one drawback was that due to the extra weight of the electric drive, the vehicles were less efficient when running on their engines alone than standard Audi 100s with the same engine.

Beginning around 1990, Professor Andy Frank of the University of California, Davis began using student teams to build operational prototype Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. His work attracted industry support and funding from Nissan, Koyo Seiko, General Motors, Saturn, Ford, Visteon, JATCO, Ovonics, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Southern California Edison, the United States Department of Energy, and others. The UC Davis PHEVs won several DOE/USCAR “Future Car” and “Future Truck” national competitions.[14]

Inspired by his work as an EV1 propulsion system engineer, Jeff Ronning began developing concepts for plug-in hybrids in the mid-1990s at then Delco Remy, Division of GM. EV1 prototypes were sometimes attached with “range-extender” trailers, developed by Alan Cocconi of AC Propulsion. These trailers were simply rolling gen sets that could supply power for long trips. It was only natural to conceive of an EV1 with a small turbo-alternator on board (1995 internal publication). External publications (SAE 971629[15]and 1999-01-2946) followed expounding the merits of using electrical energy for most local travel and proving it with the data from the US DOT. “Unlimited EV” and “Battery Dominant Hybrid” as well as “Energy Hybrid” were the given names for the architecture because the term “plug-in” hybrid coined by Dr. Andy Frank was considered at odds with Toyota’s position that Prius did not need to be “plugged in” and their opinion that plugging was inconvenient. In 1997 (ten years before Volt) an internal project at the new spin-off, Delphi Corporation, began to convert an EV1 to a PHEV. However, the project was canceled by the corporate directors of technology.

In 1994, the Esoro H301 two-door, four passenger plug-in hybrid sedan was built in Switzerland by the vehicle prototyping company Esoro AG.[16] Four such prototypes are still on the road. The lightweight (710 kg/1565 lb) vehicle featured a 360 cc engine in parallel with a 34 kW air-cooled AC induction motor. The 9 kWh nickel-cadmium battery could be recharged in four hours from a 220v electrical wall outlet, or from 30% to 80% state of charge in about two hours at a steady speed of 120 km/h.[17]

In 1998, Audi premiered a second iteration of the Duo plug-in hybrid, based on the Audi A4, at the Frankfurt Motor Show. The 1998 Audi Duo featured a parallel configuration similar to its predecessor. At the time, hybrid propulsion was considered as a promising solution to Europe’s inner city emissions problems. Audi AG leased ten Duo PHEVs to Solarmobilverein Erlangen in the city of Erlangen, Bavaria as part of ELCIDIS (Electric Vehicle City Distribution), an advanced mobility project funded by the European Commission.[18] Solar recharging stations were envisioned, but were not built. The fleet trial ended in August 2001.

About sixty 1998-1999 Audi Duo PHEVs were built. However, few customers were prepared to pay twice the price as the base model A4 equipped with an identical diesel engine, and series production was stopped.

2000-2005

2000

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Alliance to promote and develop original equipment manufacturer commercialization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Alliance members include major automakers, national labs, utilities, and the University of California at Davis. EPRI’s Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group published reports on PHEV attractiveness. Dr. Frank received new support from the European Commission, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District, California Air Resources Board, and other governmental agencies.

2001

The U.S. Department of Energy created the National Center of Hybrid Excellence at UC Davis, with Dr. Frank as Director. Dr. Frank also obtained substantial GM funds to hybridize and plug-in GM’s EV1. EPRI’s Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group (HEVWG) published a report on costs and efficiencies of hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles.[19]The report evaluated a small car, a midsize car, and an SUV, and simulated four powertrains for each vehicle: a conventional powertrain, a parallel HEV, a PHEV-20, and a PHEV-60.

Terminology note: A plug-in hybrid’s all-electric range is designated by PHEV-(miles) or PHEV(kilometers)km representing the distance the vehicle can travel on battery power alone. For example, a PHEV-20 can travel 20 miles without using its internal combustion engine, or about 32 kilometers, so it may also be designated as PHEV32km.[20]
2002

Entrepreneurs, environmentalists and engineers created the California Cars Initiative CalCars is a non-profit PHEV advocacy and technology development group.

2003
The redesigned Renault KangooElect’road operates in blended mode.

Renault began selling the Elect’Road, a plug-in series hybrid version of their popular Kangoo, in Europe. It was sold alongside Renault’s “Electri’cite” electric-drive Kangoo battery electric van. The Elect’Road had a 150 km range using a nickel-cadmium batterypack and a 500 cc, 16 kW liquid-cooled gasoline “range-extender” engine. It powered two high voltage/high output/low volume alternators, each of which supplied up to 5.5 kW at 132V at 5000 rpm. The operating speed of the internal combustion engine (and therefore the output delivered by the generators) varied according to demand. The fuel tank had a capacity of 10 litres and was housed within the right rear wheel arch. The range extender function was activated by a switch on the dashboard. The onboard 3.5 kW charger could charge a depleted battery pack to 95% SOC in about four hours from 220 volts. Passenger compartment heat was powered by the battery pack as well as an auxiliary coolant circuit that was heated by the range extender engine. Renault sold about 500, primarily in France, Norway and the UK, for about 25,000 euros each[21] and redesigned the Elect’road in 2007.

With support from the South Coast Air Quality Management District, the California Air Resources Board, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Volkswagen, Alan Cocconi of AC Propulsion converted a Volkswagen Jetta into a plug-in series hybrid. The engine was replaced with a 120 kW electric motor and 8.7 kWh’s worth of lead-acid batteries, which were charged by a trunk-mounted 1.4-liter internal combustion engine from a Volkswagen Lupo.[22]

Professor Frank’s vehicles were shown at the Paris International Auto Show and demonstrated to about 200 Renault engineers at its Paris headquarters. In the same year, Toyota shipped Coulomb, a University of California Davis Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, to Toyota City to demonstrate it to about 250 engineers and executives at two of Toyota‘s primary Tier 1 suppliers, Koyo Seiko, and Aisin AW (Aisin built the 1998-2003 Toyota Prius hybrid transaxle, as well as those used in the Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid, and Nissan Altima Hybrid).

2004
Lithium-ion battery pack, with cover removed, in the CalCars plug-in hybrid converted Toyota Prius

In September, the California Cars Initiative converted a 2004 Toyota Prius into a prototype of what it calls the PRIUS+. With the addition of 130 kg (300 lb) of lead-acid batteries, the PRIUS+ achieved roughly double the gasoline mileage of a standard Prius and can make trips of up to 15 km (9.3 mi) using only electric power.[23] The vehicle, which is owned by CalCars technical lead Ron Gremban, is used in daily driving, as well as a test bed for various improvements to the system.

Also in September, DaimlerChrysler displayed a plug-in hybrid version of its popular Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 311 CDI commercial van at the 2004 Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung Commercial Vehicle Show in Frankfurt, Germany.[24] The diesel-engine PHEV Sprinters had a maximum all-electric range of 30 kilometers. Hand-built in Sindelfingen, Germany by Mercedes-Benz, the vehicles were tested around the clock, and some were placed in commercial fleet environments. The PHEV Sprinter’s engine could be turned off by the driver for operation in historic European city centers that had outlawed internal-combustion engines.

By the end of the year, Dr. Frank’s student teams had built and operated seven proof-of-concept and proof-of-demonstration prototype Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, including 6-passenger sedans (Taurus and Sable), Sport Utility Vehicles (Suburban, Explorer), two-seater sports car (GM EV1), and two ground-up 80 mpg sports cars, and the CalCars PRIUS+ prototype and EDrive Systems conversions were demonstrated.

2005

Additional DaimlerChrysler Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 15-passenger van PHEV prototypes were completed.[25] EPRI, along with a number of utilities and government agencies, worked with DaimlerChrysler to deliver 4 Sprinter PHEV vans to test fleets.[26]

In August, four companies – Raser Technologies,[27] Maxwell Technologies, Electrovaya, and Pacific Gas and Electric – formed the Plug-In Hybrid Consortium[28][29] to help reduce the research and design gap between component suppliers and OEMs and to accelerate the development of critical PHEV components. Since then, nine other component companies and three more utility companies, as well as CalCars and Plug In America, have joined the consortium.

2006

At the UC Davis Hybrid Center, teams led by Professor Andrew A. Frank[30] have been designing and building working prototypes, installed into a GM Equinox for the Challenge X competition.[31]

PHEV conversions of IVECO medium-duty diesel-powered commercial vehicles, sold as Hybrid Daily Bimodales, are offered by Micro-Vett SPA of Imola, Italy in truck, nine-passenger van, and 20-passenger school bus configurations.[32] Micro-Vett offers their conversions with either lead-acid or lithium-ion battery packs, which have an advertised all-electric range of 25 kilometers, or 45 to 100 kilometers, respectively.[33]

February: Hymotion, a Canadian company, introduced plug-in hybrid upgrade kits in February 2006. Designed for the Toyota Prius and the Ford Escape and Mariner Hybrids, these kits were offered to fleet buyers at first and are projected to be available to the general public in 2007.

April 14: Piaggio, the Italian manufacturer of Vespa scooters, announced that it had built two parallel-architecture plug-in hybrid prototypes based on the standard Vespa LX 50 and X8 125 models.[34]

May 17: Representatives of academia, government, and the utility and auto industries testified before the House Science Subcommittee on Energy in support of proposed legislation that would advance the commercialization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.[35]

May: Ryan Fulcher and Rich Rudman of Manzanita Micro converted Fulcher’s Prius to a plug-in hybrid, using components that would lead to the introduction of a Manzanita Micro charger kit for PHEV conversions.

Hybrids Plus PHEV Toyota Priuswith PHEV-15 pack in place of original pack and extension pack (for PHEV-30) on the side, retaining tire access

July 5: Hybrids Plus of Boulder, Colorado began offering plug-in hybrid conversions of the 2004 and later Toyota Prius, using A123 Systems Li-ion batteries for either a 15 or 30-mile (48 km) all-electric range. Their first contract was with the Colorado Office of Energy Management and Conservation, which ordered one plug-in Prius conversion. The vehicle was handed over to Colorado OEMC on March 6, 2007.

July 18: Toyota announced that it “plans to develop a hybrid vehicle that will run locally on batteries charged by a typical 120-volt outlet before switching over to a gasoline engine for longer hauls.”[36] The next major update to the Toyota Prius is said to use lithium ion batteries.[37] Toyota’s fuel economy target for the upcoming next-generation Prius has been reported to be 40 kilometers/liter (2.5 l/100 km, or 94 mpg US.)[38]

August: PML Flightlink unveiled an in-wheel, plug-in series hybrid conversion of a MINI at the British Motor Show, the MINI QED.[39]PML claimed fuel economy of 80 mpg, 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 4.5 seconds, top speed of over 150 mph (240 km/h), and a range of 1,000 miles (1,600 km).[40]

November 1: Manzanita Micro sold their first PiPrius conversion kit using their PFC charger and battery regulator as a DC to DC converter and rapid battery charger system. Chelan County’s Advanced Vehicle Initiative received the first conversion kit from Manzanita Micro in October 2006. As of April 2007 the fourth and fifth such conversions were underway.

November 29: GM announced plans to introduce a production plug-in hybrid version of Saturn’s Greenline Vue SUV with an all-electric range of 10 miles (16 km).[41]

2007

The Chevrolet Volt concept car was unveiled at the January 2007 North American International Auto Show

January 7: General Motors’ Chevrolet Volt was unveiled at Detroit’s North American International Auto Show.[42][43] The Volt is part of GM’s E-Flex architecture, which is expected to initially feature a plug-in capable, battery-dominant series hybrid architecture. Future E-Flex plug-in hybrid vehicles may use gasoline, diesel, or hydrogen fuel cell power to supplement the vehicle’s battery. General Motors envisions an eventual progression of E-Flex vehicles from plug-in hybrids to pure electric vehicles, as battery technology improves.[44]General Motors presented the Volt as a PHEV-40 that starts its engine when 40% of the battery charge remains, and which can achieve a fuel economy of 50 mpg (4.7 l/100 km), even if the vehicle is not plugged in.[45]

February 28: The United States Department of Energy released a draft of a plan to accelerate the development and deployment of plug-in hybrid vehicle technology.[46] On May 22, five research projects were selected to receive $19 million to further the development of technologies related to PHEVs, such as electric motor power inverters.[47]

March 2: The South Coast Air Quality Management District in California approved a $2.6-million contract for the conversion of 20 Ford Escape Hybrids and 10 Toyota Priuses to plug-in hybrids.[48] The SCAQMD selected Quantum Technologies and Hymotion to perform the conversions.

March 14: The Illinois Institute of Technology delivered a converted plug-in Ford Escape Hybrid to the Chicago Department of Fleet Management for four to six months of field testing of the vehicle to evaluate the vehicle’s performance, as well as improvements in fuel efficiency and emission reduction.[49] The project is sponsored by the City of Chicago, MicroSun Technologies, ComEd, and All Cell, an Illinois Institute of Technology-based technology transfer company formed in 2001 to commercialize lithium-ion batteries in military, medical, portable, and transportation applications.

April 9: Pacific Gas and Electric, California’s largest electric company, announced their support for plug-in hybrids with Vehicle to Gridcapabilities. PG&E proposed regulatory changes which could allow homeowners to use such vehicles for back-up electricity in the event of a power failure.[50]

April 23: The California Air Resources Board Independent Expert Panel on Zero Emission Vehicles published a report[51] that assessed advanced vehicle technologies and concluded, among other things, that plug-in hybrids “have the potential to provide significant direct societal benefits and are likely to become available in the near future.”[52]

April 25: Phoenix Motorcars and UQM Technologies announced a collaborative project to develop a plug-in series hybrid version of the sport utility truck that Phoenix currently sells as an all-electric vehicle.[53] The vehicle is projected to use a small gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine as a range extender and lithium titanate batteries from Altair Nanotechnologies.

May 1: A123Systems lithium-ion battery company CEO David Vieau announced that A123 plans to market battery packs in 2008 for third-party conversion of hybrids to plug-in hybrids.[54]

May 2: CalCars announced that it had received a $200,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of Google, for a two-year period to support its work in educating the public about plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles. In 2006, Google.org announced that it intended to develop a plug-in hybrid of its own.[55]

Ford Escape plug-in test vehicle.

July 9: Ford Motor Company CEO Alan Mulally said he expects Ford to sell plug-in hybrids in five to ten years, the time depending on advances in lithium-ion battery technology. Ford will provide Southern California Edison with twenty Ford Escape Hybrid sport utility vehicles reconfigured to work as plug-ins by 2009, with the first by the end of this year.[56] Ford announced that it will team up with Southern California Edison to examine the future of plug-in hybrids in terms of how home and vehicle energy systems will work with the electrical grid.[57][58]

July 18: Toyota requested permission from Japan’s government to test a prototype plug-in Prius with a lithium-ion battery pack on public roads. After the test, Toyota is expected to lease them to government and municipal fleets, and may introduce the new model at the Tokyo Motor Show in November.[59]

On July 25, 2007, Japan’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport certified Toyota’s plug-in hybrid for use on public roads, making it the first automobile to attain such approval. Toyota plans to conduct road tests to verify its all-electric range. The plug-in Prius was said to have an all-electric range of 13 km (8 mi).[60] But later prototypes shown at the 2008 Paris Auto Show had an electric-only range of “just a little over six miles.”[61]

President Bush with A123SystemsCEO on the White House South Lawnexamining a Toyota Prius converted to plug-in hybrid with Hymotiontechnology.

August 9: General Motors vice president Robert Lutz said that GM is on track for Chevrolet Volt production to begin by 2010. Announcing an agreement with A123Systems, Lutz said GM would like to have their planned Saturn Vue plug-in on the roads by 2009.[62]

September 5: Quantum Technologies[63] and Fisker Coachbuild, LLC announced the launch of a joint venture in Fisker Automotive.[64]Fisker intends to build a US$80,000 luxury PHEV-50, the Fisker Karma, anticipated in late 2009.[65]

September 6: Toyota announced that they reached an agreement with Electricite de France (EDF) to “jointly test prototype plug-in hybrid vehicles and develop electricity infrastructure for plug-ins”.[66]

September 11–23: The Frankfurt Auto Show features plug-in hybrids. The Volvo “Recharge” PHEV-60 concept car was unveiled,[67]and General Motors Corporation exhibited the Opel Flextreme PHEV-34 concept car.

September 25: The United States Department of Energy is providing $17.2 million to further development of advanced batteries, and another $2 million for the study of future plug-ins. A cost-share with the United States Advanced Battery Consortium will allow up to $38 million in battery research and development.[68]

October 9: Chinese manufacturer BYD Automobile Company, owned by China’s largest mobile phone battery maker, announced that they would be introducing a production PHEV-60 sedan in China in the second half of 2008. BYD plans to exhibit it in January 2008 at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Based on BYD’s midsize F6 sedan, it uses iron-based batteries instead of lithium-ion, and can be recharged to 70 percent of capacity in 10 minutes.[69]

October 27: Venture Vehicles announced it would produce two versions of the three-wheeled VentureOne, an electric model with a range of 120 miles (190 km), and a 100 mpg[clarification needed] PHEV version.

November 8: German Environmental Minister Sigmar Gabriel received a concept paper from Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn about Volkswagen’s attempts for electric drive and plug-in-hybrid technology.[70]

2008

On January 14, 2008, Toyota announced they would start selling lithium battery plug-in hybrids by 2010.[71][72]

The production version of the Chevrolet Volt is able to run in all-electric mode up to 40 miles (64 km).

January 2008: A privately run waiting list to purchase the Chevrolet Volt reached 10,000 members. The list, administered by Lyle Dennis, was started one year prior.[73]

January 2008: Assistant professor Yi Cui and colleagues at Stanford University’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering[74]have made a discovery to use silicon nanowires to give rechargeable lithium ion batteries 10 times more charge.[75][76]

On February 7, 2008, Valence Technology announced it has entered into a contract with The Tanfield Group Plc (LSE: TAN) to manufacture and supply safe, Lithium Phosphate energy storage systems to power zero emission, all-electric commercial delivery vehicles. The Valence battery systems will be installed in leading-edge vans and trucks produced by Tanfield’s UK-based trading division, Smith Electric Vehicles, the world’s largest manufacturer of electric vans and trucks.

On March 27, 2008, the California Air Resources Board modified their regulations, requiring automobile manufacturers to produce 58,000 plug-in hybrids for sale to Californians during 2012 through 2014.[77] This requirement is an asked-for alternative to an earlier mandate to produce 25,000 pure zero emission vehicles, reducing that requirement to 5,000.[78]

April 2008: Raser and FEV[79] series hybrid/extended range EV powertrain plan to have the first prototype vehicle ready to demonstrate in the third quarter of this year installed in a full-size SUV.[80]

On June 4, 2008, “GM’s Chevy Volt Is a Go” (Rick Wagoner, GM chairman and CEO) — Production Vehicle, in Showrooms in 2010.[81] On June 5, 2008, Toyota Dealers Sold on Hymotion Plug-In Hybrids.[82] On June 12, 2008, Ford has urged US Government to step up evolution of plug-in hybrids.[83]

On June 26, 2008, Volkswagen announced that they would be introducing production plug-ins based on the Golf compact. Volkswagen uses the term ‘TwinDrive’ to denote a PHEV.[84]

Demonstration Ford Escape E85flex-fuel plug-in hybrid.

The production design model of the Chevrolet Volt was officially unveiled on September 16, 2008, as part of General Motors centennial celebration at the Wintergarden headquarters in Detroit.[85] The production model differed greatly in design from the original concept car. The carmaker cited necessary aerodynamic changes needed to reduce the concept car’s highdrag coefficient of Cd=0.43[86] down to a more efficient Cd=0.28.[87]

In September 2008, Mazda was reported to be planning PHEVs.[88] On September 23, 2008, Chrysler announced that they had prototyped a plug-in Jeep Wrangler and a Chrysler Town and Country mini-van, both PHEV-40s with series powertrains, and an all-electric Dodge sports car, and said that one of the three vehicles would go into production.[89]

On October 3, the U.S. enacted the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 as part of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. The legislation provides tax credits of $2,500 plus $417 for each kilowatt-hour of battery capacity over 4 kilowatt-hours, up to $7,500 for cars under 10,000 pounds, $10,000 for larger vehicles under 14,000 pounds, $12,500 for bigger trucks under 26,000 pounds, or $15,000 for larger trucks and equipment. The tax credit will be phased out two calendar quarters after the first 250,000 such vehicles are sold, down to 50% for the next six months and 25% for another half year after that.[90][91]

The F3DM began sales in China in December 2008

In mid-October, the Wall Street Journal reported that BYD Auto‘s PHEV-60 F3DM hatchback will be available by November in China.[92] It will sell for equivalent of USD $22,000 and has a 110 km electric-mode driving range.[93]

As a demonstration project, Ford delivered in 2008 the first flexible-fuel plug-in hybrid SUV to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid, capable of running on gasoline or E85.[94]

On December 15, 2008, BYD Auto‘s F3DM PHEV-60 hatchback began selling in China as the first production plug-in hybrid, the first ever sold in the world.[95][96] It costs the equivalent of US$22,000 and has a 100 km (62 mi) electric-mode driving range.[93] During its first year in the market the F3DM plug-in sold only 48 vehicles.[97][98]

2009

Demonstration Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid produced for real-world testing.

On June 1, 2009, Volvo announced the launching of series production diesel-electric plug-in hybrids by 2012.[99][100][101] The company plans to sell a series hybrid with the goal of achieving emissions of less than 50 grams of CO2 per kilometer.[100][101] Two Volvo V70demonstrators were converted to PHEVs and are undergoing a test trial in real world conditions since December 2009. This demonstration project is a joint venture with Vattenfall, a Swedish energy company. As reported by the test drivers, the V70 Plug-in Hybrid demonstrators have an all-electric range between 20 kilometres (12 mi) to 30 kilometres (19 mi). The test plug-in hybrids were built with a button to allow test drivers to manually choose between electricity or diesel engine power at any time.[102][103]

The first pre-production test car based on the final Chevrolet Volt design was built in June 2009, in Warren, Michigan,[104][105] and by October 2009, 80 Volts had been built and were tested under various conditions.[105][106]

During its first eight months in the Chinese market, the BYD F3DM PHEV-60 only sold less than 100 vehicles.[107][108][109] Sales of the F3DM began in Hong Kong in June 2009.[108]

2010

A global demonstration program involving 600 Toyota Prius Plug-in pre-production test cars began in late 2009 in Japan and by mid-2010 field testing had begun in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States.[110][111][112][113][114][115] The commercial version is expected to cost between US$3,000 to US$5,000 more than the conventional Prius and Toyota announced it expects to sell 20,000 units a year initially.[116]

President Barack Obama behind the wheel of a Chevy Volt plug-in during his tour of the General Motors Auto Plant in Hamtramck, Michigan.

Sales of the BYD F3DM to the general public began in Shenzhen in March 2010,[117][118] and only 417 units were sold during 2010.[119]

On March 31, 2010, the first factory-built Chevrolet Volt was produced at the Detroit Hamtramck Assembly Plant in order to test the production line and for quality control purposes, both of the tooling and the pre-production vehicles produced before regular production began.[120][121]

In October 2010 Lotus Engineering unveiled the Lotus CityCar at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, a plug-in series hybrid concept cardesigned for flex-fuel operation on ethanol, or methanol as well as regular gasoline.[122][123] The lithium battery pack provides an all-electric range of 60 kilometres (37 mi), and the 1.2-liter flex-fuel engine kicks in to allow to extend the range to more than 500 kilometres (310 mi).[122][123]

Henrik Fisker showed the first production model of the Fisker Karma at the 2010 Paris Motor Show.[124]

General Motors began deliveries of the Chevrolet Volt in the United States in December 2010. The Volt has an all-electric range of 35 miles (56 km) according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency.[125] A total of 326 Volts were delivered to retails customers during 2010.[126]

2011

Retail deliveries of the Fisker Karma began in November 2011.

Fisker Automotive initially scheduled sales of its Karma PHEV by the fourth quarter of 2009 in the U.S., and starting in 2010 in Europe.[127] After rescheduling the Fisker Karma market launch to September 2010, and missing its target to build 70 to 100 test cars in 2010,[128] production began in July 2011.[129] The Valmet plant in Finland began production with five cars a week. By December 2011 the production rate was 25 units a day.[130] The first deliveries of the Fisker Karma, with an all-electric range of 32 miles (51 km), took place in the U.S. in July 2011.[131] Karma deliveries to retail customers began in November 2011.[132]

Chrysler began in 2011 field testing of the Dodge Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrid in the United States with 140 units. The plug-in pickups were allocated to local and state governments, utility companies, and a U.S. Army base. This is demonstration program only, and Chrysler stated it has no plans for a production version. The Ram PHEV has an EV range of 20 mi (32 km).[133][134]

BYD Auto reported sales over 1,000 BYD F3DMs by October 2011.[135] Cumulative sales of the Chevrolet Volt in the U.S. and Canada reached 8,272 units through December 2011.[136][137]

2012

Deliveries of the Opel Ampera in Europe began in February 2012.

The European version of the Volt, the Opel Ampera, was released to customers in Europe in February 2012. Opel reported that most of the Ampera clients are fleet or business customers.[138] Deliveries of the right-hand drive Vauxhall Ampera in the UK began in May 2012.[139] As of October 2012, more than 33,000 units of the Volt/Ampera family have been sold worldwide. The United States is the world’s top selling market with 19,309 Volts sold during the first ten months of 2012, and cumulative sales of 27,306 units since December 2010.[126][136][140][141] The second best selling market is the Netherlands with 2,175 Amperas and 241 Volts sold through October 2012.[142][143] Canada ranks third with 1,075 Volts sold during 2012 and cumulative sales of 1,350 units between September 2011 and October 2012,[144] followed by Germany with 1,012 Amperas and 48 Volts registered through October 2012.[145][146]

Production version of the 2012 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid.

The Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was released in Japan in January 2012, followed by the United States in February 2012, and Europe in June 2012.[147][148][149] As of 31 October 2012, a total of 21,600 Prius PHVs have been sold worldwide, with 9,623 units sold in the United States through October 2012, followed by Japan with 9,500 units sold through October 2012, and 1,867 units sold in Europe through September 2012.[140][141][150][151]

In April 2012 BYD Auto announced that due to its low sales, the F3DM will be replaced by the BYD Qin (pronounced “Chin”) plug-in hybrid, which was unveiled at the 2012 Beijing International Automotive Exhibition.[152][153][154]

A two-year demonstration program with 25 Chrysler Town & Country E85 flexible-fuel plug-in minivans began in April 2012. The first units were delivered in Auburn Hills, Michigan and Charlotte, North Carolina.[155][156] The demonstration program was halted in September 2012, and Chrysler recalled the 23 units deployed at the time due to damage sustained by three separate Dodge Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrids participating in a parallel program when their battery packs overheated. The carmaker plans to upgrade the battery packs shared by both vehicles with cells that use a different lithium-ion chemistry before the vehicles go back on service. No minivans were involved in any incidents.[157]

A Fisker Karma and an Opel Ampera charging in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Fisker Automotive reported that around 1,500 units have been delivered in the U.S. and Europe by September 2012.[158]The Netherlands, with 138 units sold through October 2012,[142][143] is the top selling European market for the Karma.[159]

The Ford C-Max Energi was released in the U.S. in October 2012.

Sales of plug-in hybrid cars in the Netherlands during 2012 have been notable, as PHEV sales took the lead over all-electric cars during the first nine months of 2012. In addition to the Opel Ampera ranking as the best selling electric-drive car with 1,927 units sold during 2012, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranks second, with 610 units sold between June and September 2012, and the Chevrolet Volt ranks third with 205 units sold during the first months of the year. Adding 134 Fisker Karmas sold during 2012, the group of plug-in hybrid cars leads the Dutch market with 2,876 units sold during the first nine months of 2012, representing more than 80% of passenger EV sales in the country during this period.[160] As of September 2012, the Nissan Leaf was the top selling all-electric car in the country, with 163 units sold during the year, and a total of 457 units sold in the Netherlands since their introduction in mid-2011.[142][143]

The Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid is the world’s first diesel plug-in hybrid.

Deliveries of the Ford C-Max Energi began in the U.S. by mid October 2012.[161] The C-Max Energi has an all-electric range of 21 mi (34 km) and initially, an EPA rating for combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode of 100 MPG-e (2.4 L/100 km).[162]Later, due to complaints from owners not achieving the sticker fuel economy, and following a technical review, the official EPA rating in EV mode was downgraded to 88 MPG-e (2.7 L/100 km).[163] In a similar way, initially the EPA rating in hybrid-gasoline mode was 43 mpg‑US (5.5 L/100 km; 52 mpg‑imp),[162] but it was later downgraded to 38 mpg‑US (6.2 L/100 km; 46 mpg‑imp).[163]

The Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid, the world’s first diesel plug-in hybrid, was released in Sweden by late 2012.[164] Deliveries in the rest of Europe started in 2013.[165] Almost 8,000 units were sold in 2013.[166]

2013

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVwas released in Japan in January 2013.

Sales of the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid began in the U.S. in January 2013, and availability is limited to California and New York.[167]The Accord PHEV was introduced in Japan in June 2013 and it is available only for leasing, primarily to corporations and government agencies.[168] The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was released in the Japanese market also in January 2013, becoming the first SUVplug-in hybrid in the market.[169] The European version was released in Europe in October 2013.[170] The introduction in the United States was delayed until 2015 due to problems in the initial production batch.[171] Over 25,000 units have been sold through April 2014, with 13,498 units sold in Japan[172] followed by the Netherlands with 10,951 units,[173] where the Outlander P-HEV ranked for two months in-a-row, November and December 2013, as the top selling new car in the country.[174][175][176] As of September 2014, the Outlander P-HEV is the top registered plug-in electric car in the Netherlands with 14,567 units.[177]

Deliveries of the Ford Fusion Energibegan in the U.S. in March 2013.

The Ford Fusion Energi was released in the U.S. market by late February 2013, and retail deliveries began in March 2013.[178][179] A total of 6,089 units were sold in the U.S. in 2013.[180] Deliveries to retail customers of the limited edition McLaren P1 supercar began in the UK in October 2013.[181] The first P1 delivery in the U.S. occurred in May 2014.[182] The Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid was released in the U.S. market in November 2013. The first retail deliveries of the Cadillac ELR took place in the U.S. in December 2013.[183]

BYD Auto ended production of its BYD F3DM due to low sales, and sold the remaining inventory through October 2013.[184] Its successor, the BYD Qin, began sales in Costa Rica in November 2013, with sales in other countries in Latin America scheduled to begin in 2014.[185][186][187] Qin deliveries began in China in mid December 2013.[188] The Qin ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in China during the first quarter of 2014.[189]

2014

The BMW i8 plug-in hybrid was released to retail customers in Germany in 2014.

The BMW i8 and the limited edition Volkswagen XL1 were released to retail customers in Germany in June 2014.[190][191] The XL1 is available only in Europe and production is limited to 250 units.[192] Volkswagen expects its diesel-powered XL1 to achieve 0.9 l/100 km (260 mpg‑US), becoming the most fuel-efficient car in the world.[193]

Retail deliveries of the Porsche 918 Spyder began in Europe in May 2014. Deliveries in the United States began in June 2014.[194] The first units of the Audi A3 Sportback e-tron, Volkswagen Golf GTE and Mercedes-Benz S 500 Plug-in Hybrid were registered in Germany in August 2014.[195]

The Volkswagen Golf GTE was released in Europe during the second half of 2014.

As of September 2014, over 247,700 plug-in hybrids had been sold worldwide since 2008.[196]The leading market was the United States, with about 140,000 plug-in hybrids sold,[197]followed by Japan with about 35,600 units,[172][198] and the Netherlands with 34,362 plug-in hybrids registered.[177] The Volt/Ampera family of vehicles, with global sales of over 83,600 units, ranked as the world’s best selling plug-in hybrid and the second best selling plug-in electric car ever, after the Nissan Leaf, which has sold over 140,000 units worldwide. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranked second in global plug-in hybrid sales, with 65,300 units sold worldwide through September 2014.[199]

On 1 December 2014 BMW announced the group is planning to offer plug-in hybrid versions of all its core-brand models using eDrive technology developed for its BMW i brand plug-in vehicles. The goal of the company is to use plug-in technology to continue offering high performance vehicles while reducing CO2 emissions below 100g/km. At the time of the announcement the carmaker was already testing a BMW 3 Series plug-in hybrid prototype (328e[200]).[201]

2015

The second generation Chevrolet Volt was unveiled at the 2015 North American International Auto Show.[202][203] The Volt’s revised battery system and drivetrain allow, under the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cycle, an all-electric range of 53 mi (85 km), up from the first generation’s 38 mi (61 km). The EPA combined fuel economy in gasoline-only mode was rated at 42 mpg‑US (5.6 L/100 km; 50 mpg‑imp), up from 37 mpg‑US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg‑imp) for the previous generation. The official rating for combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode is 106 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e), up from 98 MPG-e for the 2015 first generation model.[204][205]

The first Volkswagen Passat GTEswere registered in Germany in January 2015.[207]

Deliveries of the BYD Tang SUV began in China in June 2015.[206]

In March 2015 Audi announced plans to have a plug-in hybrid version in every model series in the coming years. The carmaker expects plug-in hybrids, together with natural gas vehicles and battery-electric drive systems, to have a key contribution in achieving the company’s CO2 targets. The Audi Q7 e-tron will follow the A3 e-tron already in the market.[208] Also in March 2015, Mercedes-Benz announced that the company’s main emphasis regarding alternative drives in the next years will be on plug-in hybrids. The carmaker plans to introduce 10 new plug-in hybrid models by 2017, and its next release was the Mercedes-Benz C 350e Plug-in Hybrid the carmaker’s second plug-in hybrid after the S 500 Plug-In Hybrid.[209][210] Also in 2015, the GLE 550 e will be the first Mercedes SUV with a plug-in hybrid powertrain.[211]

As of June 2015, the Dutch market had the largest share of plug-in hybrid sales as percentage of total plug-in electric passenger vehicle sales. Accounting for cumulative registrations between 2009 and June 2015, plug-in hybrids (47,227 units) represented 78.8% share of the Dutch stock of registered plug-in electric passenger cars.[212]

The second generation Chevrolet Volt was released in the United States and Canada in October 2015.[213][214]

The second generation Chevrolet Volt was released to retail customers in the United States and Canada in October 2015 as a 2016 model year.[213][214] Availability in the American market is limited to California and the other 10 states that follow California’s zero emission vehicle regulations. The second generation Volt is scheduled to go on sale as a 2017 model year in the 39 remaining states by the second quarter of 2016.[213]

Global sales of the Volt/Ampera family passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2015. The United States is the leading market with 84,656 Volts delivered, followed by Canada with 5,023 Volts, and the Netherlands, the leading European market, with 4,976 Amperas and 1,065 units registered as of December 2014.[2] As of June 2016, just over 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas had been sold in Europe plus about 1,750 Volts.[2][9][215] As of December 2015, the other top selling plug-in hybrids are the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, with about 92,000 units sold, followed by the first generation Toyota Prius PHEV with about 75,000 units sold globally.[216][217]

Plug-in models released to the retail customers in 2015 include the Mercedes-Benz C 350e Plug-in Hybrid, Volvo S60L PHEV, Volkswagen Passat GTE, BYD Tang, Audi A3 e-tron, Volvo XC90 T8, BMW X5 xDrive40e, and Hyundai Sonata PHEV.[218][219][220]

Almost 222,000 plug-in hybrids were registered worldwide in 2015.[6] As of December 2015, the global stock of highway-capable plug-in hybrid electric cars totaled 517,100 units, out of total cumulative global sales of 1.257 million light-duty plug-in electric vehicles (41.1%).[6] At the end of 2015, the United States is the world’s largest plug-in hybrid car market with a stock of 193,770 units, followed by China with 86,580 vehicles, the Netherlands with 78,160, Japan with 55,470 units, and the UK with 28,250.[6]

2016

2017 Hyundai Ioniq Plug-in.

In February 2016, BMW announced the introduction of the “iPerformance” model designation, which will be given to all BMW plug-in hybrid vehicles from July 2016. The aim is to provide a visible indicator of the transfer of technology from BMW i to the BMW core brand. The new designation will be used first on the plug-in hybrid variants of the new BMW 7 Series, beginning with the BMW 740e iPerformance slated for sales by mid 2016, and the BMW 330e iPerformance.[221]

Hyundai Motor Company made the official debut of its three model Hyundai Ioniq ine-up at the 2016 Geneva Motor Show.[222] The Ioniq family of electric drive vehicles includes the Ioniq Plug-in, which is expected to achieve a fuel economy of 125 mpg‑e (28 kW⋅h/100 mi; 17.1 kW⋅h/100 km) in all-electric mode.[223] The Ioniq Plug-in is expected to be released in the U.S. in the fourth quarter of 2016.[224]

The second generation Prius plug-in hybrid, called Prius Prime in the U.S. and Prius PHV in Japan,[225] was unveiled at the 2016 New York International Auto Show.[226] The model is expected to be released in the U.S. and Japan by the end of 2016.[225] The all-electric range is expected to reach 22 mi (35 km), twice the range of the first generation model. Toyota expects the Prime to achieve an EPA rating of 120 mpg‑e (29 kW⋅h/100 mi; 18 kW⋅h/100 km), the highest MPGe rating in all-electric mode of any plug-in hybrid available in the market.[226][227]

In April 2016 Volvo Cars announced its goal to achieve cumulative sales since 2012 of 1 million electrified cars by 2025. Previously the carmakers had stated it expects electrified models to account for 10% of its global sales by 2020. Volvo CEO Hakan Samuelsson said the company plans to offer at least a plug-in hybrid version of every model and release an all-electric car in 2019. The next electrified car to be released is the plug-in hybrid variant of the Volvo S90 sedan, and the 60 series and 40 series will have electrified versions too.[228]

Global sales of the Outlander P-HEV passed the 100,000 milestone in March 2016, and ranks as the world’s second best-selling plug-in hybrid ever.[229][230]

Global sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander plug-in hybrid variant passed the 100,000 unit milestone in March 2016.[229][230] Europe is the leading market with 65,529 units sold, followed by Japan with 33,730 units.[230] European sales are led by the Netherlands with 24,572 units registered,[231] followed by the UK with 21,053 units registered, both at the end of March 2016.[232] Combined sales of the three top selling countries, Japan, the Netherlands and the UK, represent 78% of total Outlander PHEVs global sales through the end of March 2016.[233] The Outlander P-HEV ranks the world’s all-time second best-selling plug-in hybrid after the Chevrolet Volt family, and fourth top selling plug-in electric car ever.[229]

Cumulative global sales of the first generation Prius PHV passed the 75,000 unit mark in March 2016.[234] In June 2016, Nissan announced it will introduce a compact range extender car in Japan before March 2017. The series plug-in hybrid will use a new hybrid system, dubbed e-Power, which debuted with the Nissan Gripz concept crossover showcased at the 2015 Frankfurt Auto Show.[235]Chevrolet Volt sales in the American market passed the 100,000 unit milestone in July 2016, the first plug-in vehicle in the U.S. to achieve that mark.[236]

More than 122,000 light-duty plug-in hybrids were sold during the first half of 2016.[7] As of June 2016, about 640,000 highway legal plug-in hybrid electric cars have been sold worldwide since December 2008, out of total global sales of over 1.5 million light-duty plug-in electric cars.[6][7][8] Retail deliveries of the second generation Toyota plug-in hybrid, the Prius Prime began in the U.S. in November 2016. A total of 781 units were sold during its first month in the American market,[237] setting a new record monthly sales volume debut for any plug-in electric car released in the U.S.[238]

2017

The Hyundai Ioniq Plug-in was released in February 2017.[239] The Ioniq Plug-in delivers 50 km (31 mi) in all-electric mode.[240]

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  54. Jump up^ green Car Congress: A123Systems to Market PHEV Conversion Packs in 2008
  55. Jump up^ New York Times, September 14, 2006: Philanthropy Google’s Way: Not the Usualaccessed May 4, 2007
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  59. Jump up^ Green Car Congress (18 July 2007) “Toyota to Obtain Permission for Public Road Test for Plug-in Prius in Japan” translation from Asahi.com
  60. Jump up^ Toyota Motor Corporation (July 25, 2007) “Japan Certifies Toyota Plug-in Hybrid for Public-road Tests” Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. JCN Newswire’.’ Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  61. Jump up^ Cunningham, W. (October 2, 2008) “Toyota finally plugs in the Prius,” CNet Car Tech
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  64. Jump up^ “Drive the Future with Fisker Automotive, A New Green American Premium Car Company” (PDF). 5 September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2009.
  65. Jump up^ Shirouzu, N., and Buckman, R. (January 14, 2008) “Electric-Car Firms Get Star Investors,” Wall Street Journal
  66. Jump up^ “TOYOTA, FRENCH POWER FIRM TO JOINTLY TEST PLUG-IN HYBRIDS”. Asia Pulse. September 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
  67. Jump up^ Ford press release Archived 2008-03-07 at the Wayback Machine., show report, developer interview
  68. Jump up^ “Department of Energy – DOE to Provide Nearly $20 Million to Further Development of Advanced Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles”. Energy.gov:80. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  69. Jump up^ Edmunds (15 October 2007) “Detroit Show Preview: BYD’s New Plug-in Hybrid on Sale Next Year” Archived 2007-10-19 at the Wayback Machine. Edmunds Inside Line’.’ Retrieved 26 October 2007.
  70. Jump up^ “Planet Ark Environmental News Pictures: Volkswagen CEO Winterkorn and German Environmental Minister Gabriel Pose at the Research Department of the Volkswagen Plant”. Planetark.com. 2007-11-08. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
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  72. Jump up^ Plug-in car production race is on Archived 2008-06-22 at the Wayback Machine. (Chicago Tribune)
  73. Jump up^ Dennis, L.J. (January 26, 2008) “Chevy Volt Waiting List Hits 10,000 Members,” GM-Volt.com’.’ Retrieved January 26, 2008.
  74. Jump up^ “Yi Cui Group”. Stanford.edu. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  75. Jump up^ Serpo, Alex. “A tenfold improvement in battery life? – CNET”. News.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  76. Jump up^ “Computing power”. Nature Nanotechnology3: 1. doi:10.1038/nnano.2007.425. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  77. Jump up^ “Preliminary Summary of Air Resources Board Action (3/27/08) – Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Program” Archived 2008-05-16 at the Wayback Machine. arb.ca.gov
  78. Jump up^ “CARB backs off a bit on ZEV Mandate, orders 66k PHEVs sold by 2014”autoblog.com
  79. Jump up^ FEV. “Home – FEV GmbH”. fev.com.
  80. Jump up^ “Posts tagged Raser fev at AutoblogGreen”. Autobloggreen.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  81. Jump up^ “GM’s Chevy Volt Is a “Go” – Production Vehicle, in Showrooms in 2010″. Calcars.org. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  82. Jump up^ “Toyota Dealers Sold on Hymotion Plug-In Hybrids”. Greentech Media. 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  83. Jump up^ “Error – LexisNexis® Publisher”. lexisnexis.com.
  84. Jump up^ Thompson (June 26, 2008) “VW starts testing electric cars, sees launching them by 2010” (Forbes)
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  86. Jump up^ Phil Patton (2008-12-19). “Edgy, Yet Still Aerodynamic”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
  87. Jump up^ Sherman, Don (September 2011). “2011 Chevrolet Cruze Eco”. Car and Driver. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
  88. Jump up^ “Mazda plans Volt rival”. Autocar.co.uk. 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
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  90. Jump up^ Schoenberger, R. (October 2, 2008) “Bailout bill includes tax breaks for buyers of plug-in hybrid vehicles,” Cleveland Plain Dealer
  91. Jump up^ Vijayenthiran, V. (October 3, 2008) “Bush signs $7,500 plug-in hybrid tax credit bill into law,” MotorAuthority.com
  92. Jump up^ Shirouzu, N. (October 14, 2008) “China’s BYD to Begin Selling Electric Car Next Month,” Wall Street Journal
  93. Jump up to:a b BYD to Launch Electric Car Sales in China Next Month Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. – EVWorld
  94. Jump up^ “Ford Delivers Flex Fuel Hybrid to DOE”. Fuel and Food America. 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-03-28.
  95. Jump up^ Crippen, A. (December 15, 2008) “Warren Buffett’s Electric Car Hits the Chinese Market, But Rollout Delayed For U.S. & Europe” CNBC
  96. Jump up^ Balfour, F. (December 15, 2008) “China’s First Plug-In Hybrid Car Rolls Out”Archived 2008-12-20 at the Wayback Machine. Business Week
  97. Jump up^ “BYD Plans to Start European Car Sales Next Year”. Bloomberg Business Week. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2010-03-24.
  98. Jump up^ Johnson, Bobbie (2009-09-23). “Chinese electric car maker upbeat despite gloomy sales”. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  99. Jump up^ “Volvo promises diesel-electric plug-in hybrid by 2012”. Motor Authority. 2009-06-01. Archived from the original on 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
  100. Jump up to:a b Scott Doggett (2009-06-01). “Volvo Unveils Plug-in Diesel-Electric Hybrid Car, Says It Will Be Available in 2012”. Edmunds.com. Archived from the original on 2009-06-07. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
  101. Jump up to:a b John Voelcker (2009-06-02). “Volvo to Introduce Plug-In Diesel by 2012”. Fox News. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
  102. Jump up^ Vattenfall (September 2010). “Having a plug-in hybrid as your family car -what is it actually like?” (PDF). PluginCars.com. Retrieved 2010-09-05. pp. 3-4
  103. Jump up^ “Volvo Reports Reactions from First Drivers of Volvo V70 Plug-in Hybrid”. PluginCars.com. 2010-10-01. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
  104. Jump up^ “GM’s Response to the GM-Volt.com First Chevy Volt to be Built Post and Comments”. GM-VOLT: Chevy Volt Electric Car Site. 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  105. Jump up to:a b Jim Motavalli (2009-06-02). “G.M. Says Chevy Volt Is Still on Track”. New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
  106. Jump up^ Vlasic, Bill; Bunkley, Nick (August 11, 2009). “G.M. Puts Electric Car’s City Mileage in Triple Digits”. New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  107. Jump up^ “BYD Reportedly Has Sold Less Than 100 F3DM PHEVs in 8 months”. Green Car Congress. 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  108. Jump up to:a b “REPORT: BYD only sells 100 plug-in F3DM hybrids in eight months”. AutoblogGreen. 2009-09-21. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  109. Jump up^ Johnson, Bobbie (2009-09-23). “Chinese electric car maker upbeat despite gloomy sales”. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  110. Jump up^ “TMC Introduces ‘Prius Plug-in Hybrid’ into Key Markets”. Toyota News release. 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2010-04-09.
  111. Jump up^ “Toyota, EDF and Strasbourg Launch Large-Scale, 3-Year Plug-in Hybrid Demonstration Project”. Green Car Congress. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  112. Jump up^ “Toyota, EDF trial plug-in Prius in Britain”. Reuters. 2010-01-11. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  113. Jump up^ English, Andrew (2010-01-05). “Toyota Plug-In Prius review”. London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
  114. Jump up^ Scott Deveau (2010-03-25). “Toyota tests Prius plug-in hybrid in Canada”. Financial Post. Retrieved 2010-04-09.[permanent dead link]
  115. Jump up^ Brad Berman (2010-06-11). “Prius Plug-in Hybrid Arrives at Ultra-Green Portland State University”. PlugInCars.com. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  116. Jump up^ Nick Bunkley (2010-09-13). “Toyota Plans 6 New Hybrids for 2012”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
  117. Jump up^ “BYD Auto To Begin Sales of F3DM Plug-in to Individuals”. Green Car Congress. 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
  118. Jump up^ “BYD Auto to Offer F3DM Plug-in Hybrid to Chinese Individuals Starting Next Week”. Edmunds.com. 2010-03-23. Archived from the original on 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
  119. Jump up^ “BYD Delivered Only 33 Units of e6, 417 F3DM in 2010”. ChinaAutoWeb. 2011-02-23. Archived from the original on 2014-09-25.
  120. Jump up^ “GM builds first Chevy Volt, says production line practice run OK”. USA Today. 2010-03-31. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  121. Jump up^ “First Pre-Production Chevy Volt Rolls Off Line”. Green Car Congress. 2010-04-02. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  122. Jump up to:a b “Lotus unveils range-extended electric city car concept in Paris”. AutoblogGreen. 2010-10-02. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
  123. Jump up to:a b Mark Gillies (2010-10-02). “Lotus City Car Concept – Auto Shows”. Car and Driver. Archived from the original on 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
  124. Jump up^ John O’Dell (2010-09-30). “2010 Paris Motor Show: Fisker Karma Production Model Hews to Concept’s Promise”. Green Car Adviser. Edmunds.com. Archived from the original on 2010-10-04. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  125. Jump up^ “First Chevy Volts Reach Customers, Will Out-Deliver Nissan in December”. plugincars.com. 2010-12-16. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
  126. Jump up to:a b “December 2010 Dashboard: Year End Tally”. HybridCars.com. 2011-01-07. Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
  127. Jump up^ “Fisker Automotive announces first European importer”. Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. 2008-04-11. Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  128. Jump up^ Poornima Gupta (2010-05-27). “Fisker to build 100 test Karma cars in 2010”. Reuters. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
  129. Jump up^ Jim Holder (2011-07-12). “Fisker Karma gets 3000 orders”. Autocar. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  130. Jump up^ Alan Ohnsman (2011-12-22). “Fisker Automotive Seeks to Lift Karma Sales to Move on From Loan Scrutiny”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  131. Jump up^ Katie Fehrenbacher (2011-07-26). “PHOTOS: Kleiner’s Ray Lane receives his Fisker Karma”. earth2tech. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
  132. Jump up^ Fisker Automotive (press release) (2011-10-19). “Fisker Karma gets EPA certified: 52 mpge, 32-mile electric range then 20 mpg”. Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2011-10-19.See details in Press Release.
  133. Jump up^ Kami Buchholz (2011-05-23). “Chrysler’s Ram PHEV trucks take to the streets”. SAE International. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  134. Jump up^ “Chrysler providing 10 PHEV Ram 1500 pickups to MBTA as part of demo project”. Green Car Congress. 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  135. Jump up^ “First Pure-Electric Vehicle now available for Consumers in China”. BYD Energy. 2011-10-27. Archived from the original on 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
  136. Jump up to:a b “GM U.S. Deliveries for December 2011 by Model” (PDF). General Motors. 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  137. Jump up^ GM Canada (2012-01-04). “Sales and Production – General Motors December and 2011 Sales”. General Motors. Retrieved 2012-01-04.[permanent dead link]
  138. Jump up^ Opel Media (2012-02-21). “Opel Ampera: First Customers Take Delivery”. Opel Europe. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  139. Jump up^ Tim Pollard (2010-12-13). “Chevrolet Volt for European sale in November 2011”. Car MagazineOnline. Archived from the original on 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
  140. Jump up to:a b HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates (2012-10-04). “September 2012 Dashboard”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
  141. Jump up to:a b Jay Cole (2012-11-01). “October 2012 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card”. Inside EVs. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
  142. Jump up to:a b c RAI (2012-06-04). “Verkoopstatistieken -nieuwverkoop personenautos” [Sales Statistics – New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Archived from the original on 2014-03-28. Retrieved 2012-08-05. Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2011 and 2012 CYTD through August.
  143. Jump up to:a b c RAI (October 2012). “Verkoopcijfers oktober 2012 – Modellenoverzicht” [Sales October 2012- Models overview] (in Dutch). Auto Week Netherlands. Archived from the original on 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2012-11-03. Table shows September and October 2012 sales.
  144. Jump up^ Timothy Cain (2012-11-01). “Chevrolet Volt Sales Figures”. Good Car Bad Car. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
  145. Jump up^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA). “Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2011 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen” [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2011 by segment and model lines] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2012-10-15.A total of 241 Amperas and 25 Volts were sold through December 2011.
  146. Jump up^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (November 2012). “Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Oktober 2012 nach Marken und Modellreihen” [New registrations of passenger cars in October 2012 by make and model series] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  147. Jump up^ Takeshi Narabe (2012-05-10). “Toyota rolls out rechargeable Prius plug-in hybrid”. Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
  148. Jump up^ John Voelcker (2012-04-03). “Plug-In Car Sales Soar In March, Led By Chevrolet Volt”. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
  149. Jump up^ Toyota Motor Europe (2012-07-13). “Solid 13% Q2 sales increase for Toyota and Lexus vehicles in Europe”. Toyota Media Press Release. Archived from the originalon 2015-10-16. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  150. Jump up^ TMC Press Release (2012-11-08). “Cumulative Sales of TMC Hybrids Top 2 Million Units in Japan”. Toyota. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  151. Jump up^ Toyota News Release (2012-10-09). “Toyota Motor Europe Posts 13% Sales Increase In Q3”. Toyota Europe. Retrieved 2012-10-15.[permanent dead link]
  152. Jump up^ John Voelcker (2012-04-20). “BYD Chin: World’s First Plug-In Hybrid, Updated And Renamed”. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
  153. Jump up^ Danny King (2012-04-19). “BYD’s Qin sedan will replace poor-selling F3DM”. Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
  154. Jump up^ “Daimler/BYD joint venture introduces DENZA EV concept at Auto China 2012; BYD introduces new dual-mode Qin”. Green Car Congress. 2012-04-22. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  155. Jump up^ Danny King (2012-04-18). “Chrysler delivers first plug-in minivans in $26m demonstration project”. Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-04-18.
  156. Jump up^ “Chrysler Group Sends More Plug-In Hybrid Chrysler Minivans To Duke Energy”. CBS Detroit. 2012-04-10. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
  157. Jump up^ John Voelcker (2012-09-24). “Chrysler Yanks Plug-In Hybrid Test Fleet Off Roads, Will Replace Batteries”. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  158. Jump up^ MARTIN LAMONICA (2012-09-26). “Fisker Raises Cash, Readies Plan for Second EV”. MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
  159. Jump up^ Eric Loveday (2012-08-20). “Fisker Karma Considered a Sales Success in Europe”. PluginCars.com. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
  160. Jump up^ The Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB (2012-11-14). “Verkoopcijfers elektrische auto’s derde kwartaal 2012 – Plug-in hybrides winnen van volledig elektrische auto’s” [Sales electric car’s third quarter 2012 – Plug-in hybrids gain of fully electric cars] (in Dutch). ANWB. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
  161. Jump up^ Jim Motavalli (2012-11-02). “Ford’s Electric Cars: Starting Slow, and Waiting for the Market”. PluginCars.com. Retrieved 2012-11-03.
  162. Jump up to:a b Philippe Crowe (2012-10-11). “108 City MPGe Rating For C-MAX Energi”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2012-10-11.
  163. Jump up to:a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-10-03). “Compare Side-by-Side – 2013/14 Ford C-Max Plug-in Hybrid and 2013/14 Ford Fusion Plug-in Hybrid”. Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
  164. Jump up^ “2012 (Full Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars & Plug-In Hybrid Models”. BestSellingCars.com. 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-01-15.
  165. Jump up^ Geraldine Ashton Green (2012-12-03). “Volvo increase production of new V60 Plug-in Hybrid”. Motoring UK. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
  166. Jump up^ Volvo Cars Press Release (2014-04-24). “Volvo Cars adds R-Design version of V60 diesel Plug-in Hybrid”. Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
  167. Jump up^ Pete Brissette (2013-01-21). “2014 Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid Now Available in Calif. And New York”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2013-01-21.
  168. Jump up^ Honda News (2013-06-21). “Honda introduces Accord hybrid and plug-in in Japan; hybrid in US in October”. Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
  169. Jump up^ Jay Cole (2013-01-24). “Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV On Sale In Japan Today, Extended Promotional Video Released”. Inside EVs. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  170. Jump up^ Philippe Crowe (2013-10-22). “Outlander PHEV Now On Sale In Europe”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
  171. Jump up^ Jeff Cobb (2013-09-24). “US-Market Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Delayed Until 2015”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
  172. Jump up to:a b “三菱 i-MiEVなどの2014年4月度 販売実績” [Mitsubishi i-MiEV sales results for April 2014] (in Japanese). Electric Vehicle News. 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-05-31.Cumulative Outlander P-HEV sales in Japan totaled 13,498 through April 2014.
  173. Jump up^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (May 2014). “Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland – Top 5 geregistreerde modellen elektrische auto (30-04-2014)” [Figures electric transport – Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands and Top 5 registered electric vehicle models] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-05-31. See under the heading 31-12-2013 and 30-04-2014 for registrations figures through April 2014.
  174. Jump up^ Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2013-12-17). “Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV top seller”. AID. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  175. Jump up^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-04). “Netherlands December 2013”. EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
  176. Jump up^ Mat Gasnier (2013-12-04). “Netherlands November 2013: Mitsubishi Outlander shoots up to pole position!”. Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  177. Jump up to:a b Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (October 2014). “Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland – Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen (30-09-2014) – Top 5 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische voertuigen (30-09-2014)” [Figures electric transport – Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands, Top 5 registered plug-in electric hybrid vehicle models (09-30-2014) and Top 5 registered all-electric vehicle models (09-30-2014)] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-10-15. See under the heading “30-09-2014” for total registrations figures at the end of September 2014.
  178. Jump up^ Jesse Sears (2013-02-27). “2013 Ford Fusion Energi: Fuel Economy, Pricing and Release Date”. Cars Direc. Archived from the original on 2013-03-05. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
  179. Jump up^ Jay Cole (2013-03-01). “February 2013 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card”. Inside EVs. Archived from the original on 2013-03-04. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
  180. Jump up^ Cole, Jay (2014-01-03). “December 2013 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card”. InsideEvs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  181. Jump up^ Noah Joseph (2013-10-21). “McLaren P1 hits 62 mph in 2.8 seconds, 186 in 16.5”. Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  182. Jump up^ Jay Cole (2014-05-13). “Jay Leno Gets First McLaren P1, Drives The Heck Out Of It On Normal Roads – video”. InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
  183. Jump up^ Jay Cole (2014-01-03). “Cadillac ELR Arrives Early, Manages To Sell 6 Copies In December”. InsideEvs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  184. Jump up^ Alysha Webb (2013-05-02). “China’s BYD Opens Electric Bus Production Plant in California”. PluginCars.com. Retrieved 2013-05-11.
  185. Jump up^ Beatriz Nuñez. “BYD Presenta su Auto Híbrido Qin” [BYD Presents its Hybrid Car Qin] (in Spanish). Puro Motor. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  186. Jump up^ EV World (2013-12-04). “BYD Announces Sales Launch of Qin Electric Hybrid in Latin America”. EV World. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  187. Jump up^ John Voelcker (2013-12-09). “BYD Qin Plug-In Hybrid Now On Sale In Costa Rica”. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  188. Jump up^ Chinese Car News (2013-12-19). “BYD Launches Qin Plugin Hybrid – 189,800RMB to 209,800RMB”. China Car Times. Archived from the original on 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
  189. Jump up^ BYD Press release (2014-03-21). “BYD’s Qin Electric Hybrid Now ‘Best Selling Electric Car’ in China”. EV World. Retrieved 2014-03-21.
  190. Jump up^ Eric Loveday (2014-06-06). “World’s First BMW i8 Owners Take Delivery In Germany”. InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
  191. Jump up^ Cristian Gnaticov (2014-06-03). “First Volkswagen XL1 gets delivered to German customer”. Inautonews. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
  192. Jump up^ Eric Loveday (2013-09-03). “Volkswagen XL1 to be Priced at $146,000”. InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
  193. Jump up^ Volkswagen Media Services (2013-02-21). “Volkswagen to produce XL1 diesel plug-in hybrid at Osnabrück; 261 mpg US”. Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  194. Jump up^ Jerry Garrett (2013-09-10). “Frankfurt Motor Show: The Record-Breaking Porsche 918 Spyder Has Arrived”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-09-11.
  195. Jump up^ Mark Kane (2014-09-24). “Germany Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report August 2014”. InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
  196. Jump up^ Jeff Cobb (2014-10-22). “Global Plug-in Car Sales Now Over 600,000”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-10-22. Cumulative global sales totaled 603,932 highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles through September 2014, consisting of 356,232 all-electric cars and utility vans and 247,700 plug-in hybrids. Sales figures account for sales only in the top ten world’s markets.
  197. Jump up^ Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) (October 2014). “Electric drive vehicle sales figures (U.S. Market) – EV sales”. EDTA. Retrieved 2014-10-25. Fisker Karma sales are not included, which will increase total sales by about 1,650 units.
  198. Jump up^ Toyota Global Newsroom (2014-10-14). 実績データ(ハイブリッド車グローバル販売) [Actual data (hybrid vehicles sold globally)] (in Japanese). Toyota. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
  199. Jump up^ Jeff Cobb (2014-10-24). “The World’s 10-Best Selling Plug-in Cars”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
  200. Jump up^ “Car and Driver”. Car and Driver.
  201. Jump up^ Eric Loveday (2014-12-01). “BMW Commits To Offering Plug-In Hybrid Versions Of All Core-Brand Models”. InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
  202. Jump up^ Brian Thevenot; Jerry Hirsch (2015-01-12). “Chevy Bolt electric car targets Tesla with low price, long range”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-01-13.
  203. Jump up^ Mike Millikin (2015-01-12). “Next-gen Chevy Volt EREV is more efficient, with 50-mile electric range”. Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2015-01-13.
  204. Jump up^ Jeff Cobb (2015-08-04). “2016 Chevrolet Volt Rated For 53 Miles Electric Range”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-08-05.
  205. Jump up^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-09-01). “Compare Side-by-Side – 2016/2015 Chevrolet Volt”. Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  206. Jump up^ Staff (2015-07-17). “Chinese EV Sales Ranking in the First Half of 2015”. China Auto Web. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
  207. Jump up^ Jose Pontes (2015-02-15). “Germany January 2015”. EVSales.com. Retrieved 2015-02-17.
  208. Jump up^ Mike Millikin (2015-03-11). “Audi to have a plug-in hybrid in every model series; new BEV in 2018”. Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2015-03-21.
  209. Jump up^ Mike Millikin (2015-03-18). “Mercedes-Benz to introduce 10 plug-in hybrids by 2017; GLE PHEV coming soon”. Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2015-03-21.
  210. Jump up^ Andrew English. “Volkswagen Passat GTE first drive”. telegraph.co.uk.
  211. Jump up^ “Première for the Mercedes-Benz GLE and Mercedes-AMG GLE 63: Efficiency meets performance”. Daimler. 31 March 2015.
  212. Jump up^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (July 2015). “Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen (30-06-2015) – Top 6 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische voertuigen (30-06-2015) – Top 6 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische voertuigen (30-06-2015)” [Figures electric transport – Top 5 registered plug-in electric hybrid vehicle models (06-30-2015) – Top 6 registered fully electric vehicle models (06-30-2015)] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2015-08-04.
  213. Jump up to:a b c Jeff Cobb (2015-11-03). “2016 Volts Account For 1,324 Sales Out Of 2,035 October Deliveries”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
  214. Jump up to:a b Klippenstein, Matthew (2015-11-06). “Plug-in Electric Car Sales in Canada, October 2015: The Wallet Ballot”. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  215. Jump up^ Staff (2016-02-11). “Opel bringt 2017 neues Elektroauto” [Opel brings new electric car in 2017]. Autohaus.de (in German). Retrieved 2016-03-31. About 10,000 Opel Amperas were sold in Europe by the end of 2015.
  216. Jump up^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-03-28). “Five Ways Toyota Updated Its 2017 Prius ‘Prime’ Plug-in Hybrid”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-03-28. As of December 2015, the world’s top selling plug-in electric cars are the Nissan Leaf (about 202,000), Tesla Model S (about 107,000), Chevrolet Volt and Ampera variants (over 106,000), Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (about 92,000), and Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (about 75,000). All figures cumulative global sales since launch.
  217. Jump up^ Nakanishi, Toyoki; Oshima, Yumiko (2016-03-25). “Toyota bent on keeping reputation as green carmaker in US”. The Nikkei. Retrieved 2016-03-25. Prius PHV cumulative global sales since 2012 have been about 75,000 units. The North American market accounts for 60% of all unit sales.
  218. Jump up^ Mike Millikin (2015-04-15). “Volvo Cars introducing production S60L T6 Twin Engine PHEV at the Shanghai Motor Show; on sale next week”. Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2015-04-18.
  219. Jump up^ Mat Gasnier (2015-08-13). “China July 2015: Baojun 560 lands with a splash in market down again”. Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  220. Jump up to:a b c d Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-06). “December 2015 Dashboard”. HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-02-13. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 114,248 units in 2015, consisting of 71,105 all-electric cars and 43,143 plug-in hybrids, with corresponding market shares of 0.25% and 0.41%. Sales in 2014 totaled 123,347 units.
  221. Jump up^ “BMW at the 86th Geneva International Motor Show 2016” (Press release). Munich: BMW Group PressClub Global. 2016-02-12. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
  222. Jump up^ Park Jin-hai (2016-01-14). “Hyundai launches Ioniq hybrid compact”. Korea Times. Retrieved 2016-03-02.
  223. Jump up^ Mike Millikin (2016-03-24). “Hyundai unveils Ioniq HEV, PHEV and EV for US market at New York show”. Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2016-03-24.
  224. Jump up^ Cole, Jay (2016-02-21). “Hyundai IONIQ Electric Has A 28 kWh Battery, 105 Miles Real Range”. InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-03-02.
  225. Jump up to:a b Kageyama, Yuri (2016-06-17). “Toyota gets bullish on plug-in hybrids with new Prius Prime”. Japan Today. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
  226. Jump up to:a b Blanco, Sebastian (2016-03-23). “Toyota Prius Prime plugs in with 22 EV miles”. Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2016-03-24.
  227. Jump up^ Undercoffler, David (2016-03-23). “Toyota looks to boost Prius with all-new plug-in Prime”. Automotive News. Retrieved 2016-03-24.
  228. Jump up^ Walsworth, Jack (2016-04-21). “Volvo sets goal to sell 1 million electrified cars by 2025”. Automotive News. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
  229. Jump up to:a b c Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-03). “Mitsubishi Sells 100,000th Outlander PHEV”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-03. As of March 2016, the world’s top selling plug-in electric cars are the Nissan Leaf (over 218,000), Tesla Model S (about 120,000), Chevrolet Volt and Ampera variants (over 110,000), Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (over 100,000), and Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (75,000). All figures cumulative global sales since market launch.
  230. Jump up to:a b c “Global Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Sales Pass the 100,000 Mark” (Press release). UK: Mitsubishi Motors UK. 2016-05-19. Retrieved 2016-05-22. As of March 2016, a total of 65,529 units have been sold in Europe (21,052 in the UK and 44,477 in the rest of Europe), 33,730 in Japan, 2,015 in Australia and 259 in the rest of the world, for a total of 101,533 units sold worldwide.
  231. Jump up^ “Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen” [Figures electric transport – Top 5 registered plug-in hybrid electric vehicle models] (PDF) (in Dutch). Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland. April 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-09. With a total of 24,572 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs registered by the end of March 2016, the plug-in hybrid is the all-time top registered plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands.
  232. Jump up^ “Two years since launch and the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV has created a whole new market sector”. Automotive World. 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
  233. Jump up^ Grant, Alex (2016-05-19). “UK the third-largest market for Outlander PHEV”. EV FleetWorld. Retrieved 2016-05-22.[permanent dead link]
  234. Jump up^ Blanco, Sebastian (2016-04-25). “Toyota Corolla PHEV on the way, but only in China”. Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2016-05-03. See press release: Global sales of the Toyota Prius PHV began in January 2012, and by the end of March 2016, a cumulative total of 75,000 units had been sold in Japan, the U.S., and Europe.
  235. Jump up^ Greimel, Hans (2016-06-25). “Nissan’s to-do list: Range, autonomy”. Automotive News. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
  236. Jump up^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-07-26). “Top-Selling Chevy Volt Crosses 100,000 US Sales Milestone”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-07-26. As of June 2016, around 117,000 units of the Volt/Ampera family have been sold globally, including close to 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Ampera variants sold in Europe. Volt sales in the American market passed the 100,000 milestone in July 2016.
  237. Jump up^ Voelcker, John (2016-12-01). “Plug-in electric car sales for Nov: Volt soars, Prius Prime arrives (UPDATE)”. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-12-01.
  238. Jump up^ Cole, Jay (2016-12-02). “Several Plug-Ins Hit New 2016 Highs, As November EV Sales In US Rise Sharply”. InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
  239. Jump up^ “Hyundai’s Ioniq surpasses 30,000 in global sales”. Yonhap News Agency. 2017-03-05. Retrieved 2017-03-26.
  240. Jump up^ Kane, Mark (2016-03-02). “Hyundai IONIQ Electric & IONIQ Plug-in At The Geneva Motor Show (Gallery, New Stats)”. InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-03-02. See more details in the official press release.
  241. Jump up^ Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-09). “Nissan’s Quarter-Millionth Leaf Means It’s The Best-Selling Plug-in Car In History”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-10. As of December 2016, the Nissan Leaf is the world’s best-selling plug-in car in history with more than 250,000 units delivered, followed by the Tesla Model S with over 158,000 sales, the Volt/Ampera family of vehicles with 134,500 vehicles sold, and the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with about 116,500 units sold through November 2016. These are the only plug-in electric cars so far with over 100,000 global sales.
  242. Jump up to:a b c Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-26). “Tesla Model S Is World’s Best-Selling Plug-in Car For Second Year In A Row”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-26. See also detailed 2016 sales and cumulative global sales in the two graphs.
  243. Jump up to:a b Staff (2017-01-19). “Best-selling China-made EVs in 2016”. China Auto Web. Retrieved 2017-01-25. Three BYD Auto models topped the Chinese ranking of best-selling new energy passenger cars in 2016. The BYD Tang SUV was the top selling plug-in electric car in China in 2016 with 31,405 units sold, followed by the BYD Qin with 21,868 units sold, and ranking third overall in 2016 was the BYD e6 with 20,605 units.
  244. Jump up^ Staff (2016-01-14). “Best-selling China-made SUVs in 2015”. China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-01-17. A total of 18,735 Tangs were sold in China in 2015.
  245. Jump up to:a b c d Klippenstein, Matthew. “Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales”. Green Car Reports 7date=February 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-21.Tesla Model S sales figures from IHS data.
  246. Jump up to:a b Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-05). “December 2016 Dashboard”. HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  247. Jump up^ Jeff Cobb (2014-01-06). “December 2013 Dashboard”. HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-03-21. Shows U.S. total sales for 2012 and 2013.
  248. Jump up^ Jeff Cobb (2015-02-11). “2014’s Top-10 Global Best-Selling Plug-in Cars”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  249. Jump up to:a b Pontes, Jose (2016-01-30). “Europe December 2015”. EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-13. A total of 1,230 Ford C-Max Energi, 11,214 VW e-Golf, and 2,653 Volvo XC90 T8s were sold in Europe in 2015.
  250. Jump up^ Staff (2015-01-14). “2014 EV Sales Ranking”. China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-02-13. About 1,100 SAIC Roewe 550 PHEVs were sold in China in 2014.
  251. Jump up^ Jose, Pontes (2016-01-12). “China December 2015 (3rd Update)”. EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-13. A total of 10,711 SAIC Roewe 550 PHEVs were sold in China in 2015.
  252. Jump up to:a b c Gibbs, Nick (2016-03-15). “Hybrid sales expected to triple in Europe as tougher CO2 rules loom”. Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2016-02-22. Sales in Europe as reported by JATO Dynamics: Mitsubishi Ourlander sales totaled 19,853 units in 2014 and 31,214 in 2015; VW Golf GTE sales totaled 1,097 units in 2014 and 17,300 in 2015; Audi A3 e-tron sales totaled 1,154 units in 2014 and 11,791 in 2015; Volvo V60 sales totaled 5,441 units in 2014 and 6,349 in 2015. During 2015 a total of 5,481 all-electric BMW i3s and 6,566 i3 REx models (total 12,047). A total of 3,940 i3 REx models were sold in 2014.
  253. Jump up to:a b c Edelstein, Stephen (2016-08-16). “European electric and plug-in hybrid sales for Jan-June 2016”. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-08-16. A total of 5,692 VW Golf GTEs, 5,035 Volvo XC90s and 3,341 Audi A3-eTrons were sold in Europe during the first half of 2016.
  254. Jump up^ “2012 (Full Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars & Plug-In Hybrid Models”. BestSellingCars.com. 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 42 Volvo V60 plug-in hybrids were sold in Sweden in 2012.
  255. Jump up^ Jim Motavalli (2014-06-30). “Confirmed: Volvo To Offer Plug-In Hybrid Option on All Models”. PluginCars.com. Retrieved 2014-09-03. Volvo sold 7,739 V60 plug-in hybrids in 2013.
  256. Jump up^ Jose, Pontes (2016-07-26). “Europe June 2016”. EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-08-16. Volvo V60 Plug-in sales in Europe totaled 1,614 units during the first half of 2016.
  257. Jump up to:a b Cobb, Jeff (2016-07-05). “June 2016 Dashboard”. HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
  258. Jump up^ Voelckr, John (2016-01-19). “Plug-In Electric Car Sales For 2015 Fall Slightly From 2014”. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-02-13. A total of 49 Audi A3 e-trons were sold in the U.S. in 2015.
  259. Jump up^ “Three years since the market launch of BMW i. 100,000 electrified BMW on the road” (Press release). Munich: BMW Group Press Club Global. 2016-11-03. Retrieved 2016-11-07. Three year after the market launch of the BMW i3, the BMW Group has delivered more than 100,000 purely electric-powered cars and plug-in hybrids to customers worldwide. The BMW i3 alone has reached more than 60,000 units, and the BMW i8 has more than 10,000 delivered since the middle of 2014. Additionally, there are the approximately 30,000 iPerformance plug-in hybrids sold worldwide.
  260. Jump up^ Staff (February 2017). “Global Plug-in Sales for 2016”. EV-Volumes.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  261. Jump up^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-12-12). “Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf Celebrate Their Sixth-Year Anniversary”. HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-12-14. Global cumulative sales of plug-in electric vehicles totaled about 1.9 million units through November 2016. The Nissan Leaf is the world’s leading plug-in car with more than 240,000 units delivered. As of November 2016, the Tesla Model S ranks next with over 151,000, followed by the Vollt/Ampera family of vehicles with 130,500 vehicles sold including over 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe, the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with about 116,500 units, and the Toyota Prius PHV with about 76,200.
Classic car A classic car is an older automobile; the exact definition varies around the world. The common theme is of an older car with enough historical interest to be collectable and worth preserving or restoring rather than scrapping. Cars 20 years and older typically fall into the classic class. Organizations such as the Classic Car Club of America (CCCA) and the Antique Automobile Club of America (AACA) maintain a list of eligible unmodified cars that are called "classic". These are described as "fine" or "distinctive" automobile, either American or foreign built, produced between 1915–1998 In the UK, 'classic cars' range from veteran (pre–First World War), to vintage (1919–1930), to post-vintage (1930s). Post–Second World War "classic cars" are not precisely defined and the term is often applied to any older vehicle.   1931 Pierce-Arrow with body by LeBaron United States Cars 100 years and older typically fall into the antique class and this includes the "Bras...
Antique car An antique car is an automobile that is an antique. Narrower definitions vary based on how old a car must be to qualify. The Antique Automobile Club of America defines an antique car as over 25 years of age. However, the legal definitions for the purpose of antique vehicle registration vary widely. The antique car era includes the Veteran era, the Brass era, and the Vintage era, which range from the beginning of the automobile up to the 1930s. Later cars are often described as classic cars. In original or originally restored condition antiques are very valuable and are usually either protected and stored or exhibited in car shows but are very rarely driven. 1916 Ford Model T History The Veteran car era, Brass car era, and the Vintage car era, are part of the Antique car classification as all automobiles produced prior to World War I are considered to be antiques. Europe On Christmas Eve in 1801 Richard Trevithick of England demonstrated a steam-powered carriage, the Puffing ...
History of the electric vehicle Electric vehicles first appeared in the mid-19th century. An electric vehicle held the vehicular land speed record until around 1900. The high cost, low top speed, and short range of battery electric vehicles, compared to later internal combustion engine vehicles, led to a worldwide decline in their use; although electric vehicles have continued to be used in the form of electric trains and other niche uses. At the beginning of the 21st century, interest in electric and other alternative fuel vehicles has increased due to growing concern over the problems associated with hydrocarbon-fueled vehicles, including damage to the environment caused by their emissions, and the sustainability of the current hydrocarbon-based transportation infrastructure as well as improvements in electric vehicle technology. Since 2010, combined sales of all-electric cars and utility vans achieved 1 million units delivered globally in September 2016. The General Motors EV1, one of the cars introduced d...
Vintage car A vintage car is, in the most general sense, an old automobile, and in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930. Such enthusiasts have categorization schemes for ages of cars that enforce distinctions between antique cars, vintage cars, classic cars, and so on. The classification criteria vary, but consensus within any country is often maintained by major car clubs. 1919 Ford Model T coupe 1921 Hudson Super Six phaeton A restored 1925 Flint touring car (U.S.A.) at a rally in Australia 1930 Cadillac V-16 452 Sport series phaeton   History The vintage era in the automotive world was a time of transition. The car started off in 1919 as still something of a rarity, and ended up, in 1930, well on the way towards ubiquity. In fact, automobile production at the end of this period was not matched again until the 1950s. In the intervening years, most industrialized c...
Transverse leaf spring and solid axle front suspension of early Ford cars Transverse leaf spring and solid axle front suspension of early Ford cars is a type of automotive front suspension that has been most common in early Ford Motor Company products. "Suicide front axle" is a term that has been used for it. The configuration consists of a one-piece axle (solid front axle), to the ends of which the steerable front wheels are mounted. The axle receives its vertical and transverse support from a transverse leaf spring (leaf springs were often used for support in more than one direction), and its longitudinal support from fore-aft links sometimes called "radius rods" which are attached (via pivots) to the ends of the axle at their forward end and to the sides of the chassis (again via pivots) at their aft end. The ends of the transverse leaf spring can either tie to the top of the rods, or to the top of the solid axle. The transverse leaf spring is attached at its center to the center of the chassis's front cross member. 1919 Ford Model T Advantag...