Lubricating System

The lubricating system provides a supply of oil to all the rubbing surfaces of the diesel engine and serves to remove impurities from the engine.

Lubricating system, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines

Fig. Lubricating system, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines: 1 – outflow of oil from sump; 2 — strainer; 3 — thermometer; 4 — oil pump; 5 — pressure gauge; 6 — primary oil filter; 7 — oil line lo speed governor; 8 — oil line to crankshaft and Secondary oil filter; 9 — oil passage to piston pin; 10 — sump; 11 — secondary oil filter

Oil is drawn from a sump through strainer 2 by pump 4 and delivered to primary filler 6. Some of the outflow from filter 6 passes through secondary filter 11, undergoing therein additional purification, and is returned into the sump. The main flow of oil leaving the primary filter enters an oil gallery (on the 6ч engine, oil passes cooler 7 arranged downflow of the primary filter) wherefrom oil reaches the main bearings and camshaft bearing as shown in Fig. and the crankpin bearings, being also fed to the governor through oil line 7.

Lubricating system, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч diesel engines

Fig. Lubricating system, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч diesel engines: 1 — outflow of oil from sump; 2 — strainer; 3 — thermometer; 4 — oil pump; 5 — pressure gauge; 6 — primary oil filler; 7 – oil cooler (6ч engine); 8 — oil line to secondary oil filter; 9 — oil passage to piston pin; 10 — oil passage to crunkshaft and camshaft hearings; 11 — secondary oil filler; 12 — sump

On lubricating the crankpin bearings, oil takes care of the small end bearings which are lubricated through the passages in the connecting rods.

The timing gears, cams of the camshafts, tappets, cylinder liners and rolling-contact bearings are all splash-lubricated. A pressure-reducing valve is incorporated into the system to keep the oil pressure within the limits, being fitted into the pump casing on the 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 engines and into the primary filter bracket on the ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч engines. In the event of a pressure built-up, the valve bypasses surplus oil into the sump. The valve-opening pressure is set by screw 13 which must be turned down, using a screwdriver, lo increase the pressure or turned up to decrease same. Preparatory to this adjustment, remove cap 7 and back off nut 8.

On the 4ч and 6ч engines, components of the fuel injection pump and governor are lubricated by the oil from oil reservoirs available in the pump and governor housings.

Oil pump

Fig. Oil pump: 1 – cover; 2, 10 — gasket; 3 — casing; 4 — bushing; 5 — drive gear; 6 — driven gear; 7 – cap; 8 — lock nut; 9 — pressure-reducing valve body; 11 — pressure-reducing valve; 12 — spring; 13 — screw

Centrifugal constant-speed governor ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч diesel engines

Fig. Centrifugal constant-speed governor: ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч diesel engines: 1 — spider: 2 — sleeve; 3 — ball (roller) bearing; 4 — fulcrum pin of weigh; 5, 19 — housing, 6 — cover; 7 — weight; 8 — fork-end lever; 9 — spring; 10 — knob; 11 — handle; 12, 21 — bushing; 13 — governor spring; 14 — handwheel, 15 — screw; 16 — eccentric shaft; 17 — screw; 18 — tever; 20 — spring-loaded pull rod; 22, 25 — gear; 23 — drain plug; 24 — collar; 26 — roller; 27 — oil level gauge; 28 — fulcrum pin

The oil pump of the gear type is attached to the timing gear cover plate.

The primary oil filter is of the edge type and is fitted to a bracket at the front end of the block. A stack of discs 10 alternating with spacers 12 is assembled on shaft 2 so as to form passageways some 0.07 to 0.08 mm wide passing where through is oil which is so separated from sediments. Assembled on square rod 4 is a stack of cleaning blades 3 extending into the passageways between discs 10. When shaft 2 with a built-in overrunning coupling is being turned by handle 6, blades 3 remove the sediments from discs 10. On completing a cleaning operation, handle 0 is to tie placed so that it stands clear of the generator belt.

Secondary oil filler

Fig. Secondary oil filler: 1 — filter element; 2 — case; 3, 11 — union; 4, 6 — gasket; 5 — cover; 7 — clamping bolt; 8 — spring; 9 — bushing; 10 — centre rod; 12 – drain plug; 13 — bypass hole

Secondary oil filter, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П, and 10П2 diesel engines

Fig. Secondary oil filter, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П, and 10П2 diesel engines: 1 – filter element; 2 – plug; 3 – cover; 4 – spring; 5 – metering hole; 6 – cylinder-and-crankcase block

The secondary filter featuring renewable filter element is intended to give oil a more thorough purification. Filtering through the gaps between the cardboard discs of the filter element and through the pores of the cardboard spacers, oil is separated from engine gum and minute particles resulting from wear.

The procedure of renewing the filter element is as follows:

  1. Back off boll 7, remove cover 5 with the bolt and spring 8, drain the filler of sludge and withdraw filter element 1.
  2. Rinse case 2 with fuel oil, insert a new filler element, turn home plug 12, fill the filler with fresh oil and return cover 5 in to its place.

The relevant procedure for the filter of Fig. is as follows:

  1. Remove cover 3, withdraw filler element 1, rinse the compartment in the block and the cover with fuel oil.
  2. Insert a new filter element into the compartment, return plug 2 info its place and fit cover 3.