Checking delivery advance

On the 6ч diesel engine, the delivery advance can he checked in a rough way by means of the marks provided on coupling holder 20 and the pump bearing cap. For a more accurate checking, use is made of a capillary tube. Fig. Fuel injection pump drive, 6ч diesel engines: 1, 7 — bolt; 2 — bushing; 3 — pump drive gear; 4 — key; 5 — pin; 6 - flange; 8 — housing; 9 — arm; 10 — gasket; 11 — spring; 12 — nut; 13 — drive shaft; 14 — thrust bushing; 15 — cover; 16 — seal; 17 — auxiliary coupling; 18 — coupling; 19 — elastic spacer; 20 — coupling holder; 21 — aligning fixture; 22 — marks For an adjustment by means of the marks, crank over the engine so as to register the mark on the hub of the coupling holder with that on the pump hearing cap and read the angle of delivery advance from the graduation on the flywheel which is opposite the index on the flywheel casing. If the delivery advance fails to be in concord with the specified value, an adjustment is necessary. To that end, crank over the engine so that during the compression stroke in the first cylinder the t.d.c. mark on the flywheel rim is short of the index by an amount equal to the delivery advance. Back off bolts 1 and turn the pump shaft integrally with coupling holder 20, spacer 19 and coupling 18 so that the mark on the coupling holder registers with that on the pump bearing cap. Turn home bolts 1. The procedure of adjusting delivery advance by means of a capillary tube is as follows: Disconnect the high-pressure fuel line from the first pump unit and fit the capillary tube to the pump union; set the pump rack into the position of maximum delivery. Crank over the engine until fuel appears in the capillary tube. Crank over the engine at a slow rate further and watch the instant at which the fuel in the capillary tube slarts moving; this instant indicates the beginning of the delivery into the first cylinder. Read the value of delivery advance in the first cylinder from the flywheel graduation opposite the index. If the reading differs from the specified value, proceed with the relevant adjustment with the aid of the coupling or, on engines of the flanged modification, by turning the pump. On the...

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Checking plunger-and-barrel and delivery valve assemblies

Fil a pressure gauge with a range of 0 to 1 000 kg/cm2 to the union of a pump unit; set the fuel pump rack into the posilion of maximum delivery and crank over the engine through a few revolutions, watching the pressure gauge readings. If ihe pressure in the plunger-and-barrel assembly is at least 300 kg/cm2, this is an indication that the tightness is good. The tightness of the delivery valve is determined by watching the way the pressure gauge readings are changing. If the pressure of 300 kg/cm2 remains unchanged for a lime or drops to 250 kg/cm2 within an interval not shorter than 2 min, this is an indication of a light fit. Another requirement to be met by a sound delivery valve assembly is lhat it must not leak under the pressure applied by the fuel feed pump when the fuel injection pump rack is being set into the position of zero delivery.   Fig. Fuel injection pump, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч diesel engines: 1, 26, 34 — plug; 2 — roller; 3, 11, 12 — gasket; 4, 15, 35 — union; 5 — tappet guide; 6 — tappet adjusting screw; 7 — cover; 8 — control quadrant; 9 — clamping screw; 10 — safety screw; 13 — delivery valve assembly; 14 — blanking-off plug; 16, 20 — spring; 17 — plunger-and-barrel assembly; 18 — control rack; 19 — upper spring retainer; 21 — set screw; 22 — wire; 23 — roller bushing; 24 — roller pin; 25 — pump housing; 27 — camshaft; 28 — bearing housing; 29, 38 — bearing; 30 — tappet; 31 — lock nut; 32 — lower spring retainer; 33 — control sleeve; 36 — cover; 37 — seal; 39 — drain tube Defective plunger-and-barrel and valve assemblies need replacement. While replacing a plunger-and-barrel assembly, withdraw it upwards. Preparatory to that, take down the delivery valve with its seat, set the plunger into its lowermost position, remove the lower spring retainer, remove the screw holding down the plunger barrel and then withdraw the barrel with the plunger, using a hook.

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Adjusting injector

An injector removed from the engine is placed on a test stand comprising a fuel injection pump unit, a pressure gauge and a fuel tank. Adjust the injector nozzle valve opening pressure and check the injector for atomization. Turn adjusting screw 9 of the injector so that the nozzle valve opening pressure is equal to its upper limit. Fig. Injector: 1 — nozzle body; 2 — nozzle valve; 3 — nozzle body nut; 4 — nozzle body holder; 5 — spindle; 6 — spring; 7, 13 — gasket; 8 — nut; 9 — adjusting screw; 10 — lock nut; 11 — cap; 12 — bushing; 14 — bolt If no test stand is available, an injector can be checked for nozzle valve opening pressure and atomization on the engine directly, using a T-piece connected whereto arc the high-pressure fuel line, the injector to be checked and a pressure gauge with a range of 150—200 kg/cm2. The pressure gauge referred to above can he replased by a master injector or an injector tester set to operate at 145 kg/cm2. Adjust the defective injector so that it injects simultaneously with the master injector or the injector tester, producing a symmetrical tapered spray broken up into a fine mist with a buzzing noise under the conditions of snappy operation and with the nozzle body end face remaining dry. The injector which gives poor atomization of the fuel issuing in a nonsymmetrical spray with after dripping needs the renewal of its nozzle body. If the nozzle body is carbonized and the nozzle valve stuck therein, the remedy it to wash the components in benzine and fuel oil. On finishing with the adjustment, lock adjusting screw 9 by lockout 10 and apply cap 11.

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Maintenance of fuel system of diesel engine

Observe cleanness during the job of maintaining the fuel system. Apply blanking off plugs or clean adhesive tape to all unions and tube bores of the lines disconnected from the fuel injection and fuel feed pumps, injectors, fuel filter or otherwise dirt may enter the system. Give all the components a thorough rub and wash in fuel oil before reassembling the system. Never allow air to enter the system when the engine is in running condition. To that end, keep the fuel line unions leakproof and top up the fuel tank in good time so as to avoid it running dry. Purge the system of trapped air by priming the system with fuel, using the hand-operated pump, provided all the bleed screws on the pump and filter have been opened. Back off screw 8 on the filter and prime the system until fuel is issued free of air bubbles, turn home the bleed screw of the filter and then back off bleed screw 14 or bleed screw 34 of the fuel pumps and prime the system until it is free from air. Fig. Fuel filler: 1 — case; 2 — filter element; 3 — cover; 4 — tube from fuel feed pump; 5 — union; 6 - tube returning fuel from injectors; 7 — clamping nut; 5 — air bleed screw; 9 - tube to fuel injection pump; 10 — clamping bolt; 11 — seal; 12 — disc; 13 — spring; 15, 16 — drain plugs; 17 — blanking-off plug; I — operating position; II — position for flushing Fig. Fuel injection pump, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines:1 — pump housing; 2 — lower spring retainer; 3 — tappet; 4 — upper spring retainer; 5 — pump control rack; 6, 15, 17 — gaskets; 7 — adjusting screw; 8 — seal; 9 — gasket; 10 — delivery valve assembly; 11, 22 — springs; 12, 16 — unions; 13 — blanking off plug; 14 — bleed screw; 18 — bushing; 19 — union bolt; 20 — control quadrant; 21 — plunger-and-barrel assembly; 23 — retainer ring Fig. Fuel injection pump, ДС8, ДС12, П12, П21, П22, 4ч and 6ч diesel engines: 1, 26, 34 — plug; 2 — roller; 3, 11, 12 — gasket; 4, 15, 35 — union; 5 — tappet guide; 6 — tappet adjusting screw; 7 — cover; 8 — control quadrant; 9 — clamping screw; 10 — safety screw; 13 —...

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Maintenance of diesel engine

The maintenance of the diesel engine is aimed at keeping same invariably in good working order, eliminating all the defects in good time and reducing wear on components. The engine is subject to maintenance every shift, every 200—600 running hours and after a certain period in service before first overhaul. SHIFT MAINTENANCE Inspect the engine for visible defects, listen to the way the engine is running, wipe clean of dust and sludge, clirninale all oil, fuel and water leaks. Check the sump, speed governor and fuel pump for oil level and top up the oil, if necessary. Check the fuel tank for fuel level and top up the fuel, if necessary. Top up the level of water in the cooling system. Turn the primary filler rod through two or three revolutions while the engine is hot. Lubricate the rocker arm bearings, lop ends of pushrods and valve stems (this applies to the 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 engines). MAINTENANCE EVERY 200 RUNNING HOURS Complete all Ihe operations envisaged by the shift maintenance procedure. Change the oil in the lubricating system, renew the filter element in Ihe secondary filler and drain the oil filters of sludge. Wash the filter element of the fuel filter. Check the stuffing boxes and glands of the water pumps for leaks. Tighten the holding down bolts of the engine and those of the auxiliaries. Wash the inertia-type air cleaner and change the oil in its oil bath. Lubricate every 100 running hours the tachometer drive on the 5П2, 5Д2-1 and 5П2 engines and also lubricate the water pumps bearings, using grease cups 14. Fig. Water pump, 5П2, 8П2, 10П2 and 5П4 diesel engines: 1 - casing; 2 — impeller; 3 — shaft; 4 — spring; 5 — gland housing; 6 — pulley; 7 — hub; 8 — extremity piece; 9, 10, 26 — bolt; 11 — stopper ring; 12 — ball bearing; 13 — distance sleeve; 14 — grease cup; 15 — cup shell; 16 — cup; 17 — bellows; 18 — thermostat body; 19 - thermostat valve; 20 — thermostat cover with union; 21 — by-pass valve; 22 — thermostat union; 23, 24 — union; 25 — bracket; A — outflow to upper radiator tank; В — inflow from cylinder head; С — outflow to cylinder head; E — inflow from lower radiator tank Check the engine speed controls and the engine shutdown controls for operation. Check the drive belts for tension. Adjust the valves clearances on the 2ч engine. Test the injectors for...

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Running diesel engine in cold weather

The instructions which follow are applicable to those periods when the engine is operated at ambient temperatures below 8°C. Preparatory to running the engine in cold weather proceed as follows: Drain and rinse the cooling, fuel and lubricating systems; fill the fuel and lubricating systems with fuel and oil of the grade specified. In the cooling system, it is good practice to use an antifreeze, preferrably grade 40 or 65 ethylene glycol mixture to GOST 159—52 with a freezing point of —40°С and —60°C, respectively, the former being yellow and the latter orange in colour. If no antifreeze is available, the alternative is water heated to riot over 80°С tilled with which is the system immediately before starting the engine. Use can be made of antifreezes of foreign make such as those of the grades: MIL-E-5559 and MIL-D-8243A (USA) or BS-3150 brand AL-3 (Great Britain). Since ethylene glycol mixtures are poisons wash the hands after handling them. Fill the system with cold antifreeze in an amount which is 94% of the total capacity of the system. Top up the level with water, provided no leaks are present. Charge the storage battery and add electrolyte so as to obtain a specific gravity specified for cold-weather operation. Connect the heater to the engine, check the heater and thermostat for operation. Reduce the rate of air flow through the radiator and heat-insulate same on the engines of stationary modification so as to be able to maintain normal operating temperature of the engine. Heat-insulate the fuel tank, fuel filter, fuel lines and storage battery. Warm up the engine before starling, never crank the engine cold. On shutting down the engine, drain it of water (if water is used) and oil. On draining water, crank the engine a few times so as to be sure that water is left in the system and leave the drain cocks open.

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Shutting down diesel engine

Routine Shutting Down The procedure of a routing shutting down is as follows: disconnect the load and give the engine an idling run at a speed between 1000 and 1200 rpm for three to five minutes; reduce the specil to 1he minimum and cut out the delivery of fuel, using the fuel rack control handle; when the engine is at rest, return the fuel rack control handle into the running position. Never stop the engine by turning off the fuel shut-off cock in the fuel-delivery line or by engaging the compression release gear. Inspect and wipe dry the engine, eliminate all defects noted in the course of running, lighten leaky joints. Emergency Shutting Down Shutting down the engine in emergency is justified in the following cases: abnormal noise and knocking in running condition; the temperature of water and oil exceeding the limits; the pressure of oil at continuous speed is under 1.5 kg/cm2; persistently smoky exhaust; increase iri the crankshaft speed above 1950 rpm on the 10Д6, 10П2, П22 engines and above 1050 rpm on the rest of models. For the emergency shutting down of the engine, use handle 4 or 11 or 30 of the fuel pump control rack. Fig. Speed governor; 5Д2-1, 5П2, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines:1, 20, 33 — splindle; 2 — detent; 3, 5 — spring; 4 — pump cutoff handle; 6 — nut; 7 — bar; 8 — cotter pin; 9 — stopper ring; 10 — pump cut off lever; 11 — upper lever; 12 — bracket; 13 — pin; 14 — lower lever; 15 — fulcrum pin; 16 — spider; 17 — tip; 18 — bracket; 19 — handwheel; 21 — screw; 22 — double-arm lever; 23 — housing; 24 — retainer; 25 — retainer holder; 26 — external spring; 27 — internal spring; 28 — carrier sleeve; 29 — bearing; 30 — sleeve; 31 — weight; 32 — gear Fig. Centrifugal constant-speed governor: ДС8, ДC12, П12, П21, П22, 4Ч and 6ч diesel engines:1 — spider: 2 — sleeve; 3 — ball (roller) bearing; 4 — fulcrum plu of weight; 5, 13 — housing, 6 — cover; 7 — weight; 8 — fork-end lever; 9 — spring; 10 — knob; 11 — handle; 12, 21 — bushing; 13 — governor spring; 14 — handwheel; 15 — screw; 16 — eccentric shaft; 17 — screw; 18 — lever; 20 — spring-loaded pull rod; 22, 25 — gear, 23 — drain plug; 24 — collar; 26 — roller; 27 — oil...

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