Set the fuel rack control handle into a position for delivery.
Set the governor handwheel into a position corresronding to the starting speed of the engine by turning the handwheel into Ihe maximum speed position and then backing it off through 3 lo 5 revolutions. Engage the cornpression-release gear on the 2ч and 6ч engines by turning handle 7.
Fig. Connecting rod, 5Д2, 5Д2-1, 5112, 8П2 and 10П2 diesel engines:1 — camshaft timing gear; 2 — ratchet wheel; 3 — key; 4 — tab washer; 5 — tappet; 6 — exhaust valve pushrod; 7 — compression release handle; 8 — compression release spindle; 9 — disc of compression release spindle; 10 — inlet valve pushrod; 11 – spring; 12— housing; 13 — spindle; 14 — driven bevel gear; 15 — drive bevel gear; 16 — cover plate; 17 — tachometer drive; 18— nut; 19 — bearing housing; 20 — arm; 21 — camshaft; 22 — ball bearing; 23 — spacer ring
Turn the starter motor switch (shown at 9 in Fig) clockwise into the first position designated “HEATER PLUGS” (свечи), this turns on the heater plugs, and wait till the coil of pilot unit 7 is cherry red.
Fig. Schematic diagram of electrical system; 5Д4 and 8Д4 diesel engines:1 — holding winding; 2 — operating winding; 3 — movable contact; 4 — starter motor; 5 — storage battery; 6 — heater plug; 7 — pilot unit of heater plug; 8 — auxiliary resistor; 9 — starter motor switch; 10 — control relay; 11 — ammeter; 12 — generator regulator; 13 — generator
Turn the starter motor switch into the end most position labelled “STARTER MOTOR” (стартер) with the result that the starter motor becomes energized.
Crank over the engine, releasing the compression-release gear after a few revolutions of the crankshaft on the 2ч and 6ч engine, and turn off the starter motor as soon as the engine picks up the cycle. Turn off the heater plugs only after the engine is steadily under own power.
A point to be noted is that the cranking period must never exceed 15 s and, if during this period the engine fails to pick up the cycle, the starter motor must be deenergized. Recranking is allowed after a break lasting between 1 and 2 min. Three abortive attempts in succession to start the engine call for troubleshooting the engine and eliminating the defect.
Check the oil pressure which must be at least 0.5 kg/cm2 when the engine is running at minimum idling speed or somewhat higher it the engine has not yet warmed up. Make sure the water pumps are operating satisfactorily (malfunctioning is betrayed by the jacket water temperature) and that there is no abnormal noise and knocking. Stop the engine if a defect is noted.
Warm up the engine at stable continuous speed so that the oil temperature is between 35 and 40° С and the water temperature is between 40 and 50°C, gradually increasing the load at this stage.
Increase the load to the rated value and then set the speed at continuous rpm by manipulating with the governor handwheel. Increase the load as gradually as possible.
Maintain the engine load at not over 75% of the continuous output for a period between 40 and 50 h after the maiden starling for the sake of extending the service life of engine components and facilitating the running-in thereof, after the first 5 to 10 running hours, lighten up the nuts of the cylinder heads and other parts. Change oil again after 40 to 50 running hours, changing the filter element of the secondary filter and washing the primary filler at the same time.
The above procedure of preparing and starting the engine also applies to all those cases when the engine is started after a protracted shutdown period.
The starting of the engine in good repair after a down period inside 10 days does not call for handling the engine in the same way as before the maiden starting.